7) Lines of Latitude on Longitude Questions

1. Introduction to Latitude and Longitude Reading


2. Questions and answers

1) How do lines of Latitude help to determine climate? Are high latitudes or low latitudes typically warmer weather? Why is this so? 

earthlatitudergbThere are two types of things that help us to determine climate. One of them is Latitude. Before I Go on about how latitude helps us to determine climate, what is latitude? Latitude is the line that crosses from east to west on the earth and it is measured in degrees. Inside the lines of latitude there are different types. There are Low latitudes, Medium latitudes, and high latitudes. As the lines of latitude is closer to the equator, which are the equator and the low latitudes, warmer it gets for the year. This is because The earth is a sphere and the equator is the closest to the sun all year which is why the equator gets more direct amount of solar radiation. as the latitudes get higher or gets higher in degrees, this means that the climate is colder because they get less direct amount of solar radiation.

2) What is altitude? 

definition-of-high-altitude Altitude is something that affects climate. The altitude is measured by feet and is the distance above sea level. The amount of altitude changes the climate and the vegetation change drastically. Altitude is divided in to four levels. The first one is at sea level which is 0 feet. The second is high altitude which ranges from 5,000 ft to 11,500 ft. The next level is very high altitude which is from 11,500 ft to 18,000 ft. The final level is extreme altitude which from 18,000 ft till beyond.Altitude sickness affect travellers starting from the high altitude hight of 8,000 ft. Alitude sickness is what humans get when they have a lack of oxygen which is also called “thinner air” (Easmon) which means that air pressure decreases.Therefore as the altitude gets higher, the amount of oxygen decreases as well as the amount of temperature.

3) How does altitude affect the climate? 

There are two types of things that help us to determine climate. One of them is altitude. There is a rule for altitude and temperatures drop accordingly. If 1,000 feet goes up from sea level, about 3°F drops from the temperature.

4) Draw/create a sphere.

스크린샷 2014-02-13 7.07.28 AM

a) On the please show five special lines of latitude.

The five special lines of latitude are The equator (0°), Tropic of Caner (23 1/2 °N), Tropic of Capricorn (23 1/2 °S), Arctic Circle (66 1/2 °N), and the Antarctic Circle (66 1/2 °S).

스크린샷 2014-02-13 7.13.17 AM

b) Why are these lines significant? Explain which lines are hit “head on” and those that tend to “glance off” and why? 

These lines are significant because of the tilt of the earth and the revolution of the earth around the sun. One time in the year, there is a time when the radiation hits exactly directly the middle of the Tropic of cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn but there are no times when the sun is directly on each of the lines. The equator is the line that hits “head on” every time because the angle of the suns rays decrease and when it gets farther from the tropic of cancer north and tropic of capricorn south, the angle increases which is one of the reasons why these reasons are colder than the equator. While the countries near the equator gets solar radiation from “head on”, countries that are farther from the equator and as the lines get further, the distance that the solar ray has to travel increases which is why the lines tend to “glance off”.

5) What causes seasons?

gr12Seasons are caused mainly because of the tilt of the earth. There are 6 months of the year when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun which is from June 22- December  21. This means that the southern hemisphere is tilted outwards to the sun. This happens vise versa in the other 6 months of the year which is December 22- June 21. when the Northern hemisphere is closest to the sun and is tilted towards the sun, this means that they are having summer and the Southern hemisphere are having winter. This is the same when the Southern hemisphere are having summer, the Northern Hemisphere have winter.


3. Works Cited 

Works Cited

Easmon, Charlie. “Altitude Sickness.” Netdoctor. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/travel/diseases/altitude_sickness.htm>.

“Effects of Altitude on Climate and Vegetation.” Effects of Altitude on Climate and Vegetation. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.mbgnet.net/sets/rforest/explore/elev.htm>.

N.d. Photograph. Abc Teach. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <http://www.abcteach.com/free/e/earthlatitudergb.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Tibet Discovery. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <http://www.tibetdiscovery.com/assets/images/travel-tips/definition-of-high-altitude.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. World Maps Online. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <http://www.worldmapsonline.com/images/lesson-plans/gr12.jpg>.

6) “I am the worlds greatest explorer” Mary Kingsley

This is the post with everything on my “I am the worlds greatest explorer” video about Mary Kingsley. I have the Video, the script, source analysis, some extra info about the background of Mary Kingsley, and the works cited page.

My costume

My costume in case people couldn’t see because of the setting of the video (it was meant for it to be like that)


1. Video


2. Script

This is the script of my video. The in text citations are written in red.

(Note that sometimes there are going to be two or more in-text citations in one block of big red text so read carefully)

UntitledHello there! I didn’t realize you were there with all of my books around me. Let me introduce my self. My name is Mary Kingsley and I am an explorer and a writer from England. And, I am the best explorer in the world.  I was born in Islington, England, October 13th 1862 (Hanebutt).

Moving on, why am I the greatest explorer you ask? Well there are many reasons actually and I might have to shorten them in to three.

Untitled 2First of all, I was a woman explorer in the Victorian ages. This is one key point on why I am the best explorer. The Victorian Era was when Queen Victoria ruled with her love for Prince Albert from 1837 to 1901 (Britannica School).  In the Victorian era, a lot of women were in lower position then the husband and had the same rights as children. The women were usually responsible for cooking, cleaning, and caring for the children. All of the library-3women were considered lower than their husbands and were told to take care of the children (Küçük). However, I, Mary Kingsley, even though I lived in the Victorian Era, managed to explore the world and do what I want for my life, which is amazing, and people should acknowledge me better because I was a woman who stood out from all of the other women of England. This was probably because when I was younger my father George Kingsley also travelled the world on various expeditions. He taught me how to read and I had a wide access of books that I could read in the library (Simkin). In a way I was different than the entire woman in England and broke out of that shell of girls only have to work. This was my first reason why I am the greatest explorer.

Untitled 4Second of all, I write about my adventures. This might seem very simple but the fact that I write about my adventures show a lot about my adventures. Unlike other explorers who solely write or make someone write a journal to show their king or queen, I wrote my books to spread my knowledge to everyone. Also I didn’t write a very shallow book, I wrote a lot of details about the place. “…for away in their fastness the mangroves raise their branches far above the reach of tide line, and the great gray roots of the older trees are always sticking up in mid-air” (Kingsley 5). I don’t only want the knowledge of the lands to myself but I want to spread my knowledge to people around me. This is one other reason why I am the greatest explorer.

Untitled 3Lastly, I stood up for the Native Africans. I traveled around mostly Africa and learned about the lives and religions (Enchanted Learning). Even though I am not completely different from how the Europeans view the Native Africans, I have found out that their government was very well controlled and found it fascinating. I helped people think of Africans in a different way (Hanebutt). I also stated that Africans are not brutal degraded or cruel (Birkett; Kingsley). Unlike other explorers, I thought differently about the Africans, which is one of the reasons I am the greatest explorer. I had a wide range of mind and was open to different cultures.

You must surely think that now I am the worlds greatest explorer right? Well I better get going. See you next time.


3. Source Analysis


4. Background of Mary Kingsley


5. Works Cited

5) Guns, Germs, and Steel Video Questions

1. Guns, Germs, and Steel Video


2. Guns, Germs, and Steel Video Questions and Answers

 1) At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry. Describe this weaponry.

harquebusAt the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry called the Harquebus. The harquebus is a type of gun, which was made lighter and portable by the Europeans but was made outside of Europe. It was activated by gunpowder. The harquebus was first used by foot soldiers on the battlefield. To people in the modern times this gun looks like a gun for fools because its aim is terrible and it takes such a long time to reload and can be killed while reloading. However, the Inca’s haven’t even got that far in battle technology and with the sound, smell, and smoke it makes, it is likely that they were very terrified of a weapon that they have never seen before.

 2)     What is Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze? 

Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bonze is simple. There is nothing brilliant about the Europeans for making steel swords and in fact making steel swords was available outside of Europe in the Fertile Crescent nearly 7,000 years ago. As the knowledge in the Fertile Crescent spread, the Europeans had access to the knowledge while the Inca’s weren’t because of their geographical status.


b. How did their diversified society help with this cause?

rapier Because European men wanted to develop the steel sword they went through different trials and errors in their diversified society with many people and different ideas. Because they went to a lot of wars, they found out that if there is more carbon the weapon becomes more handy and stronger. However, they learned that the swords have to be a little flexible for it not to break. One famous sword is he rapier. While the Spanish had a lot of experience and the society for the weapons to develop likes wars with the moors, the Inca Empire had less experience


 3)     What battle tactics did the conquistadors to help them defeat the large Inca army use? 

CortesPizarro and his most trusted men thought of a plan to battle the Incas. The battle tactics that the conquistadors used to help them defeat the large Inca army was to launch a surprise attack. This was not the first time that this tactic was used though. 12 years before Hernan Cortez used this on the Aztecs. The reason why Pizarro knew this was because of the book that Cortez published of the skills that he used to take over the Aztecs. Another thing that helped Pizarro and his men was the Aztec leader and his soldiers were unarmed. Also they first tried to persuade the Incas to become Christians but once they refused the proceeded in their surprise attack.


b. What did the Inca need to do to be successful in war?

The Incas needed a lot of things to be successful in war. Even though they had a lot of people, they had a disadvantage because they were lacking some of the things that the Europeans had. For example one was reading and writing (being illiterate). While Pissarro’s men could read and write from texts all around, the Inca people only hand local knowledge which definitely pulled them back. Also they should have thought more about how the Europeans are going to plan to meet them. When the Europeans were attacking them, they should have stood firm but they saw creatures such as horses that they had never seen before which was shocking for them.


 4)     According to Diamond, what made the Europeans “accidental conquerors”? 

According to Diamond, the Europeans didn’t become conquerors because they were smart or more intelligent than the natives. This in a way makes them “accidental conquerors and this revolves around guns, germs, and steel. Like mentioned before, they had more access to guns and the technology because they were closer to the Fertile Crescent than the Incas. Also, it is not because the Europeans had the specific gun technology because the guns of the Europeans weren’t very good either, it was because the Incas didn’t have any other weapons. This is the first point, which makes the Europeans “accidental conquerors”.

Another reason why the Europeans are “accidental conquerors” is because of steel. While the Americas were isolated and had no knowledge about steel, the Europeans got the knowledge of steel because of the Fertile Crescent’s knowledge spreading through the lands. Because the Incas only had bronze weapons and they didn’t bring the weapons to fight, so the Europeans naturally had more chances of winning and it wasn’t because they were smarter or such.

The last and most important reason the Europeans are “accidental conquerors” are because of Germs. Because a lot of Europeans lived with their domesticated animals such as cows, pigs, and chicken they had a lot of germs with them while the Incas didn’t have much domesticated animals. The only animal was the lama but they did not live with the humans. When the Europeans traveled to the new world, they brought a lot of germs including small pox that the natives were not prone to. This caused a lot of deaths. It is said that about 90% about the Native Americans were killed due to germs.


5)     Considering the entire scope of European exploration of the new world, what was the greater impact on world history?  In other words, how did European exploration and conquest of the New World shape our world today?  Please give three specific examples.  You may use outside sources to answer this question, but please use citations.

Because the European exploration of the new world happened, there are a lot of impacts that they had on our world today, both good and bad.

One way in which explorations of the new world affected our world today is by spreading germs around the whole world. Because of the cattle and domestic animals that the Europeans kept they were full of germs, which spread to the Native Americans who weren’t immune to the diseases. “It killed one third of the people and producing permanent pock marks in another third of its victims” (3.3 EUROPEAN DISEASE IN THE NEW WORLD). This is the sad part but there is a good part to this as well. The world became known with this disease and people can fix this and make vaccines.

One big thing that happened and impacted our world today was something called the Columbian exchange. There were both things, good and bad, that traveled back and forth between the new world (North America) and the old world, which is Europe. Some of the good things that were exchanged to Europe and the Americas were food. To Europe were sent “maize, white potatoes, sweet potatoes, and manioc” (Crosby). To the Americas were sent “wheat, barley, rice, and turnips” (Crosby). Also to the Americas, livestock were sent such as horses and cows. Even though goods were exchanged there were a lot of bad things that were exchanged as well. Diseases were also spread to the Americas. One of which is Small pox. This disease killed about 95% percent of the Native Americans that were living in North America.



Works Cited

“3.3 EUROPEAN DISEASE IN THE NEW WORLD.” UIC University of Illinois at Chicago. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <http://www.uic.edu/classes/osci/osci590/3_3%20European%20Disease%20in%20the%20New%20World.htm>.

Crosby, Alfred. “The Columbian Exchange.” The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2014. <http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/american-indians/essays/columbian-exchange>.

“Guns, Germs, and Steel: Conquest of the Americas | National Geographics Documentary.” YouTube. YouTube, 30 June 2013. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXcj0ZEyIY8>.

N.d. Photograph. Apworldhistory2012-2013. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <http://apworldhistory2012-2013.weebly.com/uploads/9/9/9/6/9996001/5885243_orig.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Clevelandcivilwarroundtable. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <http://clevelandcivilwarroundtable.com/images/things/harquebus.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Mundibusiness. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <http://www.mundibusiness.com/images/_products/tmkglobal/00-7X54.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Wikimedia. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.


1) Exploration Video Questions

1. The Great age of Exploration Video 


2. The Great age of Exploration Questions


1) What are some reasons why Native Americans resent the fact that Christopher Columbus glorified for so long?

There are a lot of reasons why Native Americans resent the fact that Christopher Columbus glorified for so long. One example is because when Columbus and his shipmen came to the Islands they brought diseases that weren’t existent in that part of the land. Because the Native Americans were not immune to these diseases, a lot of them would become sick and die. Some people might wonder why the shipmen from Europe died but this was because they were already immune to the diseases that they had brought. Some diseases that the old world brought to the new world was smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, influenza, and Chicken Pox. When people living in the present look at these diseases, most of them can be fixed. But at this time this was not the case. It is recorded to be said that about 80% of the whole population of native Americans had deceased because of the diseases. If Columbus hadn’t found the Americas, then they wouldn’t have to see the dying of their loved ones, friends, and family.

Another reason why Native Americans resent the fact that Christopher Columbus glorified for this long was because the Europeans took their home and treated them like they were not people. Because europeans didn’t see a lot of Native Americans before and because of a different race. They took them as slaves and traded them like they were items. The Europeans also didn’t ask permission from the Native Americans to take their land and just took it from them.

2) Why do so many people think that Columbus shouldn’t be credited for discovering America?


A lot of people think that Columbus shouldn’t be credited for discovering America because people state that there were people who went to America before Columbus did such as the Vikings. the Vikings are Germanic tribes who liked to explore and were adventurous. Another stronger reason is because people believe the Norse Explorer Leif Ericsson discovered the Americas. When Leif Ericsson was banned from Iceland, he went in search for a settlement and that was when he found Greenland. However, it is not actually known who first discovered the Americas because there is no specific and precise data about history.

3) In the 1400’s, there was very little communication and trade between continents and yet today is difficult to imagine a world without these things. How do the countries benefit from these exchanges? How are these exchanges damaging?

In the 1400’s there was very little communication and trade between continents and yet today is difficult to imagine a world without these things. There are a lot of benefits and damages that happened because of these exchanges.


Some benefits are that by trading things we can get things that we don’t have from our own countries. For example, this can be seen in the Columbian Exchange. From the Americas to Europe there was a lot of trading going on. For example, from the Americas the Europeans brought things such as Pumpkins and Turkeys which greatly effected Thanksgiving in the current times. Some things that the Americas got from Europe was live stock, cattle, and sheep. This can also been seen in the silk road. For example, the europeans didn’t have a cooling system like we have now so they had no way to preserve except for spices and salt. There were a lot of spices in India so because they traded, this benefited the society.

Even though there are benefits, there are also damages as well. One aspect of a damage made was that they traded diseases as well. For example from Europe there were diseases such as small pox and malaria that were brought to the americas. From the Americas to Europe there were also diseases that were sent such as Polio and Syphilis. The reason why they were effected was because the other countries people were immune to it but the receiving countries were new to this and that is why they died off because of these diseases. Another damage is that racism started from seeing different people from different people. Since Europeans didn’t see Native americans or Africans, they thought that they could use them as slave which is not a good thing to be happening.

4) In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, what were some of the greatest differences between European culture and the native culture of the Americas?

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, there were a lot of differences between European culture and the native culture of the Americas. One of the differences were that when the Europeans came to the Americas, the Native Americans did not make an attempt to share their cultures and religions with the Europeans. Another thing was that the Europeans had a lot of weapons and they were rewired to concur and spread their culture around. That is why the Europeans had concurred the Americas because of their weapons.

Another difference was that the Europeans looked down on the Native Americans. There are three reasons to this. One reason was because they had no technology what so ever, second because they were not european, and third because they could not read or write. However, the Native Americans did not look down on the Europeans and accepted them in with hostility. It was soon that they would find out that these Europeans would steel their homes and claim it as theirs.

5) What cultural attitudes existed on the part of Europeans that made them feel that it was all right to buy and sell Africans or to enslave native Americans?

As mentioned before. There are about three reasons why Europeans felt that it was all right to buy and sell Africans or to enslave native Americans.slave-auction-new-orleans

One of the reasons was because the Native Americans and Africans had no technology what so ever. The Europeans had a lot of technology and most importantly they had weapons when the Native Americans lived by embracing and with nature. The Europeans looked down on them because they seemed more superior than them.

Another reason why Europeans felt that it was all right to buy and sell Africans or to enslave native Americans was because they were not european. In the past europeans haven’t talked or traded with different people from different countries which caused them to think that they were superior of all races. They felt that because Africans and Native Americans were different and they could treat them however they want.

A final reason was because they could not read or write. In that time, the nobel people were excepted to read or write and the servant couldn’t. This was the same for the Native Americans and Africans so the Europeans assumed that they were not smarter than them and treated them differently.

6) One of the biggest changes that resulted from the Great Age of Exploration was an unprecedented shift of world population across the Atlantic ocean. Discuss the results of these population shifts.

North_Atlantic_Ocean_laea_relief_location_map There were a lot of changes that resulted from the Great Age of Exploration in which there was an unprecedented shift of world population across the Atlantic ocean. However there is one big change which was the difference between how the people were treated. When the europeans moved to one side, they didn’t become poor and often became rich. However, the Africans or the Native Americans were forced and were used as slaves and were sold and bought. The results of this was that it was beneficial for the Europeans but it was a sad and tragic time for the Africans and the Native Americans.

7) How did restrictions on trade with the Far east help initiate the Great Age of Exploration?

In the time of the Great age of exploration there was a lot of problems with the muslim religion taking over the region of turkey. Because most of the countries in Europe where Christian, they couldn’t easily go to the east to trade with the asian countries. So the Europeans tried to do a lot of things to get to Asia which got a lot of interesting results.

One thing that Columbus tried to do was go the opposite way. Instead of going on land, he was going to go by the sea. A lot of people thought he was crazy because at this time, everyone thought that the world was flat. Columbus knew that if he went that way he would definitely find India which was the place that he was aiming to go. However, he stumbled on an island which is in the Americas. This restriction brought Columbus to find the continent that we call America.

Another way that this restriction brought benefits is because we “discovered” and explored some parts of Africa. Because going by land to Asia was restricted, Prince Henry tried to to around by sea to Asia. However he went across around the borders of Africa and claimed parts of them as his own territory. It was not after Henry was dead that the Europeans made their first Asian Colony.

Ferdinand_magellanA final way that this restriction brought benefits is because Europeans found out that the world was round. At this time, it was normal to think that the world was flat and everyone believed that was so. However, Ferdinand Magellan believed that he would travel around the world. This took a painstaking 3 years and just when people forgot about the voyage out of the 224 men that was sent out to the voyage 17 came back alive because the others died including Magellan himself. Because the routes were blocked we were able to know that the earth was round.

8) What were some of the factors unique to the Renaissance that helped propel the Great Age of Exploration

There are a lot of factors that were unique to the Renaissance that helped propel the Great Age of Exploration.


One aspect is that in the medieval times, there was not a lot of creativity and everything revolved around religion. In the Renaissance, there was still religion around, but a lot of scientists, artists, and historians had a lot of creativity and wanted to find out about different things which fuelled the Great Age of Exploration.

Another aspect is that the Europeans had the urge to spread their knowledge and religion around to different people. Europeans have this thought that they want to spread what they know to different people especially religion at that time because it seems like they are doing a good job. Another thing is that if they spread their knowledge it makes them feel smart and superior.


3. Works Cited

Works Cited

“Clashes Between the Native Americans and the Europeans.” Education.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2013. <http://www.education.com/study-help/article/us-history-settlement-colonization-native-americans-europeans/>.

“Diseases.” Diseases. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013. <http://public.gettysburg.edu/~tshannon/hist106web/site19/diseases.htm>.

“THE GREAT AGE OF EXPLORATION Video Script.” Docstoc.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013. <http://www.docstoc.com/docs/94016819/THE-GREAT-AGE-OF-EXPLORATION-Video-Script>.

“THE GREAT AGE OF EXPLORATION Video Script.” Docstoc.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013. <http://www.docstoc.com/docs/94016819/THE-GREAT-AGE-OF-EXPLORATION-Video-Script>.

“Leif Ericson.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 June 2013. Web. 08 Dec. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leif_Ericson>.

N.d. Photograph. Clevelandseniors. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://www.clevelandseniors.com/images/quiz/leif-ericson-viking-statue.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Form Spring Me. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://files-cdn.formspring.me/photos/20131009/n52559d97d1b13.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Form Spring. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://files-cdn.formspring.me/photos/20131009/n52559d97d1b13.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Form Spring. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://files-cdn.formspring.me/photos/20131009/n52559d97d1b13.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Formspring Me. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://files-cdn.formspring.me/photos/20131009/n52559d97d1b13.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Ganada. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://www.gananda.org/webpages/hslibrary/imageGallery/Research%20Links/renaissance-head2.gif>.

N.d. Photograph. Public Gettysburg. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://public.gettysburg.edu/~tshannon/hist106web/site19/diseases_files/image004.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Son of the South. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://www.sonofthesouth.net/slavery/pictures/slave-auction-new-orleans.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Spring Me. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://files-cdn.formspring.me/photos/20131009/n52559d97d1b13.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Spring Me. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://files-cdn.formspring.me/photos/20131009/n52559d97d1b13.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Vhinkle. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://www.vhinkle.com/modern/columbian_exchange.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Wikia. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://images1.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20121008164445/protagonist/images/d/d1/Ferdinand_magellan.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Wikimedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/North_Atlantic_Ocean_laea_relief_location_map.jpg>.

“Vikings.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 June 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vikings>.

Magellan Reading Questions

1. Journal

2. Questions and Answers on WordPress


Ferdinand Magellan – Discovering the Pacific Ocean

Worksheet on extracts from “First Voyage Around the World”

Section One: Language Development:  While reading, record any words you don’t already know.  When you have finished reading, choose seven of those words, define them, and record the sentence from which they came.

Word Definition Sentence from the Text
Debouched To come out from a little space in to a large area. “Wednesday, 28 November 1520, we debouched from that strait, engulfing ourselves in the Pacific Sea” (Pigafetta 380).
Flanks Right and left side of someone or something “When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries, two divisions on our flanks and the other on our front” (Pigafetta 380).
Crossbowmen A person who uses a crossbow, which is a type of bow and arrow device from the medieval period. “The musketeers and crossbowmen shot from a distance for abut a half-hour, but uselessly; for the shots only passed through the shields which were made of thin wood and the arms [of the bearers] (Pigafetta 381).
Cease To come to an end of something. “The captain cried to them, ‘Cease firing! Cease firing!’ but his order was not at all heeded” (Pigafetta 381).
Latter Near the end of something and farther from the start. “The natives shot only at our legs, for the latter were bare; and so many were the spears and stones that they hurled at us that we could offer no resistance” (Pigafetta 381).
Effaced To erase someone or something. “I hope through the efforts of your most illustrious Lordship that the fame of so noble a captain will not become effaced in our times” (Pigafetta 382).
Adversity A hard or troubling situation. “Among the other virtues which he possessed, he was more constant than ever anyone else in the greatest of adversity” (Pigafetta 382).


Section Two: Comprehension Check:  Complete the following questions – you do not have to use complete sentences.  You may complete this in bullet format.



1 Why and where was Magellan exploring?
Answer Why?

  • Sent by the kind of Spain to explore.


  • East Indies
2 What were the sailors eating during their time in the Pacific Ocean?
  • Powder of Biscuits with worms
  • Putrid yellow water
  • Hard ox-hides
3 Why did nineteen men die during the voyage?
  • Gums of the teeth swelled
4 Why didn’t the crew die of hunger according to the writer?
  • Teeth swelled
  • Ability of eating gone
5 How many men were on each side of the battle described in the extract?
Answer Natives

  • Three divisions with more than 1,400 people


  • 49 people in two divisions
6 What weapons were the sailors using?
  • Muskets
  • Crossbows
  • Pointed stakes
  • Fire
7 What weapons were the natives using?
  • Arrows
  • Bamboo spears
8 How exactly was Magellan killed?
  • Wounded on left leg
  • Fell face forward
  • Killed with iron and bamboo spears
9 What was Magellan checking after he was wounded?
  • Whether the crew were all on boats
10 What were the most important ‘virtues’ that Magellan showed?
  • More constant than anyone else
  • Endured hunger better than anyone
  • Accurately understand sea charts and navigation
  • No one had so much natural talent
  • Boldness to learn how to circumnavigate the world


Section Three:  Source Analysis: Critical Thinking Exercises:  From this source, we can learn many things about the voyage of Magellan; however, we must read the source ‘critically’.  In other words, do not just believe everything that you are reading, but think about it and decide how reliable the information is, and what exactly we can learn from the source. 

Fill in the following table by putting an X in the most relevant box related to the source. 

Topic The reason for and purpose of voyage The conditions in which the sailors lived and worked The attitude of the explorers toward the natives The attitude of the natives toward the explorers The character of Magellan
There is plenty of information about this in the source



There is some information about this, but we must be careful



This is no really mentioned in the source, but we can make some inferences from the information provided


We can’t learn anything about this from the source.


Section Four: Extension Work: Clearly, this source is a biased account of Magellan’s adventures; written by the navigator of the ship (nobody makes themselves sound bad, right?).  Select one quote from the text that you think is a) definitely valid, b) useful information but questionable, and c) clearly exaggerated.  Give a brief explanation so to why you chose each quotation. 




Definitely a valid as a source for History “Nineteen men died from that sickness, and the giant together with an Indian from the country of Verzin” (Pigafetta 380). This is valid and as a source for history because there is no reason why Pigafetta would be biased about the point that this many people are dead. Since he is recording it for the king, he has to make it as accurate as possible.
Useful information, but of questionable validity “When we reached land, those men had formed in three divisions to the number of more than 1,500 persons” (Pigafetta 380). Because they were getting attacked at the spur of the moment, it might have seen that there were a lot of people and it is a estimate. It is useful information that there were a lot of people, but we can’t say that it was the exact estimate that Pigafetta made.
Clearly exaggerated “And that this was the truth was seen openly, for no other had had so much natural talent nor the boldness to learn how to circumnavigate the world, as he had almost done” (Pigafetta 382). This is probably biased because there were a lot of talented people and because he was their leader, Pigafetta probably felt very loyal to Magellan.


3. Questions and Answers on Microsoft Word

3) Christopher Columbus Reading Questions

1. Christopher columbus Journal

2. Christopher Columbus Reading Questions (WordPress)

Christopher Columbus

Revealing the Existence of the Americas to Europe

Vocabulary Development:

As you read the text, record five words you do not understand.  Below, write the word, the definition that goes along with it, and the sentence it was used with in the text. 

Word Definition Sentence from the Text
Shoals Shoals are land under the water that is near the surface. “We saw petrels, and a green reed close to the ship, and then a big green fish of a kind which does not stray far from the shoals.
Knots A knot is a type of measurement that is used to measure the speed of ships that translated to feet is 6076 ft per hour. “I resumed our original course westward, sailing at about nine knots.”
Dignified Dignified is an adjective to describe a person or a group that is thoughtful and full of grace and they seem like they deserve respect. “They are all the same size, of good stature, dignified and well formed.”
Haphazardly This is being all over the place and not being organized or having a plan. “They are built in the shape of a campaign tent, very large, and arranged not in streets but haphazardly, like tents in an army encampment.”
Leagues A league is a measurement or an unit that used to measure distance in Europe but it is not an official measurement now. The league is the distance that a human can walk in an hour. “The two men I sent inland to explore came back last night and told me they had gone twelve leagues when they reached a village of fifty houses.”


Comprehension Questions

Answer the following questions below.  You do not have to answer these in complete sentences; bullet format is fine.

Question Answer
1 Where was Columbus heading?
  • India (Columbus says “Indies”)
2 What signs did they have on October 11 that they were nearing land? Santa María (Ship Columbus was on):
  • Petrels
  • Green Reed
  • Green Fish that lives only near Shoals.


  • Cane and Stick
  • Peace of wood works with an iron tool
  • Piece of a cane
  • Plant that grows on land
  • Little board


  • Thorn branch with red fruits; newly cut

3What did Columbus promise the first man to see land?

  • Silk Doublet
  • 10,000 maravedis from the Majesties

4Which of Columbus’ ships spotted land first?

  • Santa María: Columbus Guessed land.
  • Pinta: because it was fast sighted land.

5What flags or banners did the crew carry onto the island first?

  • Christopher Columbus: Royal Standard
  • Captains: Banner with the Green Cross that the ships carry; with letters F and Y surmounted by crown.

6What did the Europeans give the islanders?

  • Red bonnets
  • Glass beads
  • Things of small value

7Describe the physical appearance of the men and women on the island.

  • Appear to be poor
  • Naked
  • All very young
  • Looked strong; well built
  • Thick hair like horses
  • Hair is short; some strands of hair hanging
  • Paint themselves different colors
  • Very broad
  • Wide foreheads
  • Big eyes

8Why did Columbus think the islanders were intelligent?

  • People from mainland come to take them as prisoners
  • Must be good servants
  • Quickly repeats everything said

9How many islanders did he want to take with him?  Why?How many?


  • Take six of them


  • Teach them Religion (Christianity)
  • Show them to the Majesties
  • Teach them Spanish

10How did the islanders travel out to the ship?

  • Made a long boat
  • Made of Tree Trunk
  • Biggest fit 40-50 people
  • Smallest fit one
  • Row with paddles

11What did the island look like geographically?

  • Large and flat
  • Lake in middle
  • No mountains

12What kind of animals did Columbus’ men see on the island?

  • Fish with different vibrant colors
  • Whales
  • On land only parrots and lizards
  • A big Snake
  • Birds
  • Tamed Dogs

13What was the weather like on the island?

  • Nights are neither hot or cold
  • Other islands are hot; flat
  • This island warm wind

14On November 6th, what kind of place did the Europeans find?

  • Village of fifty houses
  • Thousand inhabitants in village
  • Houses are visible
  • Land is very fertile

15What did the islander women do to the Europeans?  Why?What?

  • Kissed their hand and feet


  • To see if they were human
  • To see if they were real


Analysis Questions

Answer the following questions using complete sentences.  Use specific examples from the text.  This is practice for your coming summative task. 

Question Your Analysis
1 What evidence is there that Columbus was very religious? There are several evidences shown in the text that Columbus is religious. One example can be seen where he encourages his crew who were complaining how long the distance was. “I also told them that is was useless to complain; having set out for the Indies I shall continue this voyage until with God’s grace, I reach them”  (Columbus 321). This sentence shows that he will take god’s grace with him and one of the reasons why he was going to the indies without running out of strength was because of God and Religion.Another Example of Columbus being very religious can be depicted in this part of the journal, “I talked to the men about the grace which God had shown us by bringing us in safety, with fair winds and no obstacles, and by comforting us with sings which were more plentiful everyday” (Columbus 321). This was written in the part where the crew was all having their ‘Salve Regina’, which is a Christian Hymn. This quote tells us that Columbus us thankful for god for not giving them any problems and that he encouraged others to think that way as well during the religious singing of the hymn.Adding on, one other way that Columbus can be seen as religious is when he thinks of taking back some of the native people back to the majesty. “With God’s will, I will take six of them with me for Your Majesties when I leave this place, so that they may learn Spanish” (Columbus 323). This shows that he believes that it is God’s Will that he take back people from the islands which shows that some part of this thought was effected by the thought of religion and god. 

A sentence before the given quote also helps us detect that Christopher Columbus was religious. “I believe they would readily become Christians; it appeared to me that they have no religion” (Columbus 323). Some characteristics of religious people are that they want to spread their religion to different lands and people. Columbus shows this by thinking about teaching the Natives Christian to spread it.


Following were the reasons and examples why Columbus is religious.

2 What kind of leader does Columbus seem to be? There are a lot of characteristics that a leader should have. They should be courageous, intelligent, strong etc. What kind of leader is Columbus? According to the journal I would describe him to be an encouraging, intelligent, and sly leader.The first kind of leader Columbus was is an encouraging leader. This can be seen in various parts of the text. “I encouraged them as best I could, trying to raise their hopes of benefits they might gain from it” (Columbus 321). In this passage “they” are the crew. Columbus can be seen cheering the crew up who are giving up on actually making it to the Indies. He is a very positive and encouraging leader, which I believe is one of the reasons why they came to land fairly quickly.The second kind of leader Columbus was is an intelligent leader. When Columbus was outside at night he could see some light, which identified that there was land close by. “I was on the poop deck at then o’clock in the evening when I saw a light. It was so indistinct that I could not be sure it was land… the light appeared once or twice more, like a wax candle rising and falling…I was sure we were close to a landfall” (Columbus 322). A few paragraph after this, he states that he found land for sure. This identifies that Columbus is a very good observer and is very intelligent because his own eyes were better than some of the ships that he had or the crewmembers. 

The final kind of leader Columbus was is a sly leader. Leader’s characteristics don’t always have to be good because some do benefit that person. Columbus being sly can be shown when he goes to the Natives and gives them things and seems kind but he things about enslaving them and taking them back to Spain. “…I gave some of them red bonnets and glass beads which they hung around their necks, and many other things of small value, at which they were so delighted and eager to please us that we could not believe it… They must be very good servants, and intelligent… With God’s will, I will take six of them with me for Your Majesties when I leave this place, so that they may learn Spanish” (Columbus 322-323) With this we can analyze further that he looked to be nice to the Natives but he was actually very sly and thinking of what he should do with their intelligence.


These were some of the types of leaders Columbus was.

3 How did they ‘take possession’ of the land they first found? Columbus’s Crew was delighted to have reached the “Indies” and since it was their first land, they did a lot of things to prove that the land was “their” possession.Firstly, in the journal, Columbus writes that he brought flags from the of the royal standard and other flags of his country and his majesty. “I tool the royal standard, and the captains each took a banner with the Green Cross which each of my ships carries as a device, with the letters F and Y, surmounted by a crown, at each end of the cross” (Columbus 322).  This shows that Columbus tries to ‘take possession’ of the island by using something called symbolism, in this case the type of symbolism is the flags and banners that he brought. By bringing it and putting it on the island one will feel satisfied and if others come along they can say that they ‘own’ the island.There is one other way that Columbus and his crew took possession of the land they first found. “I called to the two captains to jump ashore with the rest, who included Rodrigo de Escobedo, secretary of the fleet, and Rodrigo Sánchez de Segovia, asking them to bear solemn witness that in the presence of them all I was taking possession of this island for their Lord and Lady the King and Queen, and I made the necessary declarations which are set down at greater length in the written testimonies” (Columbus 322). In this sentence we can see that did Columbus use symbolism by using the banners, he created witnesses and written proof that he was the one that gained the island and that this island was for the Majesty. 

These were two ways that Columbus tried to ‘take possession’ of the first island.

4 What was Columbus’ main intention with the islanders who he (they) met? The main intention with the islanders who he (they) met was to trade with the islanders. One must remember that the main reasons that Columbus wanted to reach the Indies to get goods and trade. This can be seen in various parts of Columbus’ journal.The first place where this can be seen is when he is communicating with the islanders. “I kept my eyes open and tried to find out if there was any gold… I gathered from their signs that if one goes south, or around the south side of the island, there is a king with great jars full of it… I tried to persuade them to go there, but I saw that the idea was not to their liking” (Columbus 323-324).  In this we can see that Columbus wants to get gold from the island, which indicates that gold is one of the reasons that he came to the islands.The trading comes in after Columbus thinks about gold. “But they will give whatever they have for anything one gives them; they even bargained for pieces of broken plate and broken glasses. I saw them take three Portuguese ceotís, the equivalent of one Castilian blanca, for sixteen balls of cotton…” (Columbus 324). One can infer that this piece of text indicates that Columbus was trading with the islanders, although it might have not been fair. Which then again comes to the main reason that Columbus came to the islands, to trade and to gain different goods.
5 What were Columbus’ first impressions of the character of the islanders? (See the October 11 entry) Since it was the first time that Columbus was visiting the island he must have had some first impressions of the character of the islanders. Some of these are listed in his journal.One thing that he must have thought about was how to treat these islanders depending on their character. “I could see that they were people who would be more easily converted to our Holy Faith by love than by coercion and wishing them to look in us with friendship I gave some of them… many other things of small values” (Columbus 322). In this passage he thinks that the islanders would not fall for violence or force and will be better handled and persuaded if he treats them better and with love. One can infer that one of Columbus’ first impressions of the islanders was that they needed love more than to be treated with force.There is another point that Columbus mentioned as well. “…they appeared to me to be a very poor people in all respects… they go about as naked as the day they were born…” (Columbus 323) Columbus is trying to say that one of his first impressions of the islanders was that they were poor just because unlike him and his crew, they weren’t wearing any clothes. This identifies that Columbus thought that the islanders were lower of power because he was ‘richer’ than them.
6 In the journal entry for October 14th, what do you think Columbus is most interested in? In the journal entry for October 14th, Columbus does a lot of things that show or hint what Columbus is interested in.One thing that he was interested in is a jewel, most specifically gold. “I could not swear to this, and the gold they wear hanging from their noses is also from the island…” (Columbus 324). From this one can see that even though he is travelling, he is still thinking of ways that he could obtain the gold that the islanders had.If gold was the side of what he was interested about, this was the one that he was most interested about. “I saw them take three Portuguese ceotís, the equivalent of one Castilian blanca, for sixteen balls of cotton which must have contained more than an arroba of thread. I had forbidden anyone to take this, except that I had given order to take it all for Your Majesties…” (Columbus 324). In this we can see that because he had obtained great amounts of cotton, he was interested and he wanted to take it to the Majesty to get praised. 

Overall, you can say that the things that Columbus was most interested in were cotton and gold.

7 What particularly impresses Columbus about the islands? There were a lot of things that impressed Columbus about the islands. They were mostly about the nature.One example can be seen when he lands on a new island. “This island is large and very flat, with green trees and plenty of water… and everything is green and a delight to the eye” (Columbus 324). From this we can see that Columbus appreciates the green nature of the islands and it impresses him a lot because he describes the island very thoroughly.Another example can be seen about the animals. “The fish here show amazing differences from our own. Some are like cocks, with the handsomest colouring in the world… No man could look at them without amazement and delight, the colors are so beautiful” (Columbus 324). This means that because he doesn’t have amazing fish in his own country, he is fascinated and impressed with the animals. 

Overall, I can depict that Columbus is impressed with things that are not usually found in in his home country.

8 How are the Europeans treated by the islanders? (November 6) In some of the previous questions, I have talked about how the Europeans treated the islanders. However, I have never talked about the islanders treating the Europeans.If the Europeans treated the islander with a motive, the islanders were kind and wanted the Europeans to feel welcomed. “They were given food… The Indian who was with my men told them about our way of life, saying that we were good people” (Columbus 326). In this one can infer that the islanders thought of the Europeans as good people since there were given food and words of hospitality.Another way that the islanders treated the Europeans was that they were treated like superior beings. “The people kept touching them and kissing their hands and feet in amazement, thinking they had come from Heaven…” (Columbus 326) In this sentence we can infer that by the actions of the islanders that they think of Europeans as higher than them because you wouldn’t kiss the feet or hands of a person who were lower or of the same level as you are.



Answer the following questions in one paragraph by using at least three quotations from the text.  Highlight each quotation in your answer so I can easily identify it.  

What was Columbus’ attitude toward the islanders?  In other word: How exactly did Columbus view the islanders?  Did they impress him?  Does he respect them?  Is the critical of them?  What are his motives for being there?
 Columbus perceived the Native Americans by…. Columbus had a lot of thought on the Native Americans. He had a lot of different opinions on the Native Americans but they all lead up to similar themes. First of all, let us look at the first example in Columbus’ journal. “However, they appeared to me to be a very poor people in all respects. “…They appeared to me to be a very poor people in all respects… they go about as naked as the day they were born…” (Columbus 323). In this clip of the journal one can say that Columbus thought of the Native Americans as lesser beings just because they had a tradition of not wearing clothes. This was one of the first impressions that Columbus had about the Native Americans. Another example can be seen when the Native Americans and Columbus’ crew are talking to each other. “They must be good servants, and intelligent, for I can see that they quickly repeat everything said to them… I will take six of them with me for Your Majesties when I leave this place…” (Columbus 323). One can depict that the language and the tone of writing Columbus is using is not the usual tone that he uses for humans. It is as if he is writing about how to train a slave or a lesser being. Even though they are smart, these are the only thoughts that Columbus thinks about. We can also see that his true motives are to take things and trade things on the island. One last example of how Columbus perceived the Native Americans can be seen when they are trading with each other, “…exchanging them for such objects as glass beads and hawk bells. They took anything and gave willingly whatever they had” (Columbus 322). This does not show directly how Columbus thought about the Native Americans trading for small things, however we can tell through his actions. He did not trade for things of the same value and left the Native Americans to trade for small things.Overall, I think that Columbus thought of the Native Americans as poor and even though they were smart that didn’t change is motive or first impressions of them.



3. Christopher columbus Reading Questions (Crocodoc/ Microsoft Word)