2) Science Investigation

1.  OBJECTIVE

1a. Learn how an inclined plane works.

 

First of all, the inclined plane is of the many simple machines including the wedge, athe lever, the wheel, the screw, and the pulley. The inclined plane is used to lift things easier. Lifting an object straight up is using more force than pulling the object against an inclined plane, which uses friction. The position of how the ramp is positioned is called the slope or the gradient in mathematical terms. As the slope gets steeper, the force that is used to lift the item gets closer to lifting the item straight up. Like the picture, if you say that the above angle is  (theta), as theta increases the slope becomes steeper as the item becomes harder to loft and it gets closer to the weight of lifting the item straight up. On the other hand, as theta decreases, it becomes easier to lift.

 

1b. Investigate how the force to pull a load up an inclined plane depends on the slope of the incline.

 

2.  INTRODUCTION

You will begin your investigation of machines by focusing on the inclined plane.  Inclined planes are ramps.  You see them everywhere.  Many places have ramps to help physically disabled people enter and exit buildings.   Sometimes people use ramps to move heavy loads.  If you had to raise a heavy load to some height, would you rather lift it straight up or push it along an incline?  Think about that as you do this inquiry.

 

2a.  Have you every seen a ramp used to move an object or a person to a higher position?  If so, where?

 

I have seen a lot of ramps used in everyday life. In malls or public areas, there are a lot of stairs and for people who are using wheel chairs it might be harder for them to get up the stairs. That is why they have stone ramps next to the stairs so that those people can get up the same height not having any trouble. Also carts from the markets can often use these routes. Another ramp that I have seen in was when people move from house to house. Some boxes are very heavy and they are not able to move up by hand. That is why they have ramps so they can use less force to carry the item. One last way of the many there are car ramps. Car ramps are used when you want to fix the car, or make it go up on something. Then you don’t have to lift the car up and you can just roll the car.

 

2b.  Did the ramp have a gentle slope or a steep slope?

 

Even though they are different types of ramps, they all have a similarity that they all had a gentle slope. There is no use using a steep slope because it makes the whole process harder because more force is required to move the item. If it is a gentle slope however, you can move the item more easily and smoothly without a problem.

 

2c.  Why do you think a ramp was used?

 

A ramp was used because it used up less force than just moving the ramp up. As mentioned previously, we have to use a ramp with a gentle slope because there is no use using a steep slope.

 

3.  MEASURING FORCE ON AN INCLINED PLANE

 

3a. Attach a spring scale to an object and measure the force required to pull the object at a slow, steady speed across a flat-lying shelf board.

 

Item used: Full water bottle

Effort Force: 0.75 Newtons

b

3b. The force you used to pull the object is called the effort force. 

 

3c. Place the object on an inclined plane (Raise your shelf board to any height).  Measure and record the effort force required to hold the object on the inclined plane.  How much force did you measure?

 c

Effort Force: 1 Newton

Rise: 28 cm

 

3d.  If you pulled the object up the plane (instead of just holding it in one position), how do you think the effort force needed to pull the object up the incline at a slow, steady speed would compare with the effort force needed to move the object across the flat-lying shelf board?

 

Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that the effort force needed to pull the object up the inclined plane will take more force than the effort force needed to move the object across the flat-lying shelf board because the gravity is pulling it down while the flat one isn’t.

 

3e.  Test your prediction and record results.

 

 

Rise

Run (cm)

Slope (cm)

Effort Force (Newtons)

Flat lying board

0 cm

89 cm

0

0.75 Newtons

Inclined Plane

28 cm

83 cm

0.34

2.1 Newtons

  

3f.  What do you predict will happen to the effort force required to move the object up the inclined plane if the slope (steepness) of the inclined plane is changed (both increased and decreased)?

I think that if the inclined plane’s slope is increased the effort force required will increase because the gravity has more force when it is getting close to being vertical.

 

3g.  Design a procedure to test your prediction.  To measure the different slopes of the inclined plane in your experiment, please see the diagram below, measure the “rise” and the “run” and record the slope as the “rise” divided by “run.”  

d

3h.  Write your procedure here.  

 

a) Variables

a) Variables

 

Independent variable: The independent variable is the slope (rise/run)- We are changing the slope purposely by changing the rise (books) and the run to meet the slope we want.

 

Dependent Variable:

–       Effort force: This is the one that is going on the graph

–       Angle or theta: This can be the dependent variable in another experiment.

Control Group:

–       The thickness of the books

–       The weight amount of water in the water bottle.

 

b) Materials Needed

– Filled water bottle

– 6 Books

– ramp

– meter stick

– Spring Scale

e

c) Procedure

 

1)    Fill up the water bottle.

2)    Get out the six books, meter stick, the Spring scale, and the ramp.

3)    But the ramp on the flat surface and slowly move the water bottle on the spring scale across.

4)    Record the rise, run, and the effort force.

5)    Calculate the slope.

6)    Put one book below the ramp and slowly move the water bottle on the spring scale across.

7)    Record the rise, run, and the effort force

8)    Calculate the slope

9)    Put another book (so there is two) below the ramp and slowly move the water bottle on the spring scale across.

10) Record the rise, run, and the effort force.

11) Calculate the slope.

12) Put another book (so there is three) below the ramp and slowly move the water bottle on the spring scale across.

13) Record the rise, run, and the effort force.

14) Calculate the slope.

15) Put another book (so there is four) below the ramp and slowly move the water bottle on the spring scale across.

16) Record the rise, run, and the effort force.

17) Calculate the slope.

18) Put another book (so there is five) below the ramp and slowly move the water bottle on the spring scale across.

19) Record the rise, run, and the effort force.

20) Calculate the slope.

21) Put another book (so there is six) below the ramp and slowly move the water bottle on the spring scale across.

22) Record the rise, run, and the effort force.

23) Calculate the slope.

24) See the results and make a graph.

 

3i.  Make a data table to record your measurements here.  It should include Rise, Run, Slope, Effort Force

 

Try

Rise

Run

Slope

Effort Force (Newtons)

0 Books

0 89 0 0.4

1 book

4 88 0.05 0.8

2 books

8 87 0.1 1.2

3 books

12 86 0.14 1.6

4 books

16 85 0.2 2.0

5 books

20 84 0.24 2.4

6 books

24 83 0.3 2.8

 

 

3i.   Perform your experiment and collect your data.

 

3j.  Graph and describe your data.  What does trend (=pattern) does the graph show?  (How does the data change?)

 m

We can see more data on the table so I will explain about the table. In the table the things that are shown and marked are the rise, run, slope, the number of books, and the effort force in newtons. We can analyze that as the number of books increases the rise becomes higher, the run becomes lower, and the slope and the effort force becomes higher. For example when we had 1 book we had a rise of 4cm and a run of 88cm. We also had a slope of 0.05 and a effort force of 0.8 Newtons. However, when we had 2 books we had a rise, run, slope, effort force of 8cm, 87com, 0.1, and 1.2 Newtons, respectively. This shows us that the thickness of the books are 4 cm and that as we add more books the rise increases by 4 cm, the run decreases by 1 cm, the slope increases in about 0.05, and the effort force increases about 0.4 each time. While in the table we find out the difference between the individuals, in the graph we find out about the patterns that it shows.

 

In the graph the slopes are in decimals so we can only see about where the points are on the graph and we can’t call out the coordinates. However, we can see in this graph that overall as the slope increases the Effort force (Newtons) increase as well. Also sometimes the slopes aren’t the same distances with the other points. Some of them are closer.

For an extra part I not only wanted to compare the graph to the table but I wanted to compare two graphs:

 

1) Graph without line of best fit

m

2) Graph with line of best fit

Newetons2

 

These two graphs are nearly the same but the only difference is that the last one has a line of best fit. The line of best fit is a linear line that creates an over all relationship between the two variables, in this case Slope and effort force in newtons. Now the question that we have to answer is this: which one is easier to use? I would say that the graph with the line of best fit is easier because you can see the overall increase in the points, which is labeled, as series 1. Now that we have a linear line supporting, it is easier for us to tell if it is increasing or not. The first one is not as effective because it only has points and we can’t actually tell if it is linear or if it is slightly off.

 

3k.  Present a conclusion supported by your data about the effort force needed to move the object along the inclined plane and how it relates to the slope of the inclined plane.  Include an explanation for the relationship you find.

 

To answer the overall question, in the experiment we found out about the relationship of slope to the effort force in Newtons. As the number of books or the rise increased the run decreased which means that the numerator is getting bigger than the denominator making the number become bigger every time. As the slope becomes steeper, the effort force becomes larger because it is coming close to the object just hanging from the sky, which is the position that takes up the most effort force. Therefore, with my experiment, I proved that as the slope becomes steeper the effort force increases as well.

 

In my Hypothesis I stated:

I think that if the inclined plane’s slope is increased the effort force required will increase because the gravity has more force when it is getting close to being vertical.

 

I have proved my self exactly because in my experiment, as the slope increased the effort force increased as well. The reason was the same too because it was getting close to the point where gravity takes over and when it is just hanging from the sky.

 

Rise/run is called the slope or the gradient. Rise is the numerator and run is the denominator. If the numerator is smaller than the denominator, then the number is going to be a fraction and vise versa. In this case, the numerator is getting bigger and bigger and the denominator is getting smaller which means that the overall slope is going to increase throughout. Also we can measure the slope with an angle called theta. Because the triangle formed with the ramp is a right triangle, we can know that as theta increases the slope becomes steeper. The highest that a slope can go is 90 degrees which is just holding it from the sky which proves that it is the maximum. Also this deals with gravity. As we pull it up steeper slopes the gravity seems to “pull” harder on the water bottle making it harder to lift up. We have experimented that if we pull the bottle from the air this is the maximum amount of effort force used. As the slope becomes steeper it gets closer to this amount.

n

Explanation of the drawing:

 

The dashes on the side of each book mean that the height of them are the same, in this case, they are all 4 cm. I have marked the rise and the run so that people can clarify how to measure them. Also I have marked the theta angle, which is explained about the conclusion. I have noted that rise/run is the slope. This is a very important fact that everyone should know. I wrote on the bottom that as theta gets smaller the effort force decreases as well. Also I wrote as the slope increases, effort force increases. All of these facts are included in the Conclusion.

3) Innovative Process

1. Design Idea 1

1) Bird’s eye view

스크린샷 2013-09-24 10.41.33 PM

 

2) Side view

스크린샷 2013-09-24 10.41.44 PM

 

3)Evaluation

Target Market: This product uses centrifugal force to take out the water from umbrellas so it meets the target market. (1 out of 1)

 

Functions: This product is going to be kept in areas where it is rainy and if you spin the rod the product spins therefore taking out the water. (1 out of 1)

 

Materials: Because I do need saws to cut and glue guns this meets the need. (1 out of 1)

 

Ergonomics/ overall sizes: The size of the product is notified to be 43cm of height but might change due to change of sizes. (0 out of 1)

 

Manufacturing processes and quantity: This product is notified to be made once. (1 out of 1)

 

Equipment/ tools- requirements: I might need some materials such as the glue gun and saws but I might not need other things such as the engineer square. (0  out of 1)

 

Maintenance Requirements: This product is made out of plastic so it will be light. That is why it doesn’t meet the point. (0 out of 1)

 

Product life span and life cycle: The product is made out of plastic and it will not die out fast and it meets the point. (1 out of 1)

 

Aesthetic appearance (Shape, color, texture): The shape of the product is an upside down cup. The color of the product is semi-transparent and the texture of the product is going to be hard but smooth because it is made out of plastic. (1 out of 1)

 

Quality Assurance: This model is scheduled to have quality assurance once in 3 months. (1 out of 1)

 

Quality Control: All of the quality controls are scheduled to be held. (1 out of 1)

 

Cost: The cost of this product is going to surpass 15-20TL because it is not going to be made out of materials that I can find and because I have to buy them. ( 0 out of 1)

 

Time scale and planning: It will take approximately 40 hours and this meets my point. (1 out of 1)

 

Health and safety: This product has a lot of dangerous sides and I doubt that I can cut all of the sides off so this does not meet the point. (0 out of 1)

 

Weight: People think that plastic is light but it isn’t very light at all. It might surpass 10 kg. (0 out of 1)

 

TOTAL POINTS: (9 out of 15)

 

2. Design Idea 2

1) Model Sketch

 

 

 

 

스크린샷 2013-10-09 2.12.29 AM

 

2) Evaluation

Target Market: The target market for my product was people who live in rainy places and my product benefits those people. (1 out of 1)

 

Functions: If you turn the lever, the water comes out of the umbrella. Therefore, it fulfills the function. (1 out of 1)

 

Materials: I note that I will need to cut dowels with saws but this design is made out of 100% plastic. (0 out of 1)

 

Ergonomics/ overall sizes: The drawing states that the height of this product is going to be 24 com. (0 out of 1)

 

Manufacturing processes and quantity: This design is scheduled to be made once and therefore it fulfills the point. (1 out of 1)

 

Equipment/ tools- requirements: I might need some saws and materials such as the steel rule but I might not use all of the tools. (0 out of 1)

 

Maintenance Requirements: This product is light; however, it has a clip on to the wall that makes it to not fly off. (1 out of 1)

 

Product life span and life cycle: I stated that this product should be reusable. I think that it is because it is made out of plastic and plastic lasts long. (1 out of 1)

 

Aesthetic appearance (Shape, color, texture): The shape of the product is not an upside down cup although it is smooth and see through. (0 out of 1)

 

Quality Assurance: This product is scheduled to have quality assurance every 3 months especially because it can fall from the wall. (1 out of 1)

 

Quality Control: Every point of the quality control is going to be held while making my product and is scheduled to. (1 out of 1)

 

Cost: The cost of this product will be more than 15-20 TL because Plastic costs a lot and I have to buy a lot of the materials. (0 out of 1)

 

Time scale and planning: This product will take less than 40 hours because all I have to do is glue things together. (0 out of 1)

 

Health and safety: My product is unlikely to have dangerous sides because it is made out of plastic. (1 out of 1)

 

Weight: Since plastic is heavy it will probably weigh about 5 kg because the design is smaller than the first design. (1 out of 1)

 

TOTAL: (9 out of 15)

RESULT: Both are (9 out of 15) in terms of the specification.

 

4) Pitch to Client and Approval

Q: What do you think of my original design?

A: I like it that it is made out of plastic because the plastic keeps the water from changing the product’s color. Also the way that you used gears so that this product to work is very unique. Because it is a cup shape, it can be carried more easily and it can save energy. The fact that you have a specific material you are going to make the product with is fantastic.

스크린샷 2013-10-09 2.01.24 AM

 

Link to VideoFirst Question Video

 

Q: What do you think of my second design?

A: The second product has the same idea but where it is put is different which is cleaver of you to change. You thought of different ways you can set your product and thought of a clip which is very different. The clip idea is good however it can fall off from the wall or the product can be too heavy and it will fall off which is a disadvantage. Also, the cylinder in the inside might fall because of the force of gravity.

스크린샷 2013-10-09 2.01.32 AM

 

Link to second videoSecond Question Video

 

Q: Which design should I use and why?

A: You should use the first design because it is the most efficient and it is more possible to build then the second design. Even though they are very similar, the fact that one is hung on the wall makes them very different. The one on the wall might not work as much because of the gravity but the first one is possible to turn and take out the water.

스크린샷 2013-10-09 2.01.39 AM

 

Link to third Video: third question video

Q: What should I add to the first design when drafting?

A: You should add possible ways you can make the cylinder inside because there might not be a particular item that fits your gear perfectly.

스크린샷 2013-10-09 2.01.46 AM

 

 

Link to Fourth Video:  Fourth Question Video

5) Drafting

a) Sketch of Final Design

스크린샷 2013-10-09 1.59.47 AM

b) Evaluation of the final Design

 

Target Market: I said that the market for my product is people who live in rainy places and this product matches the point because the rain water is taken out buy centrifugal force. (1 out of 1)

 

Functions: Similar to the Target market, this product takes out water from the umbrella using centrifugal force. (1 out of 1)

 

Materials: I will need all of these materials because I will use dowel for the handle and a saw to cut the dowel as well as plastic. (1 out of 1)

 

Ergonomics/ overall sizes: The product is 430 mm, which is exactly 43 cm of height. ( 1out of 1)

 

Manufacturing processes and quantity: This product is scheduled to be made once and I am planning to make it until the due date. (1 out of 1)

 

Equipment/ tools- requirements: I will need most of these materials because I need to cut, glue, and measure it when I am making product. (1 out of 1)

 

Maintenance Requirements: Plastic is heavy and it wouldn’t fly off because people can also glue it on the floor. (1 out of 1)

 

Product life span and life cycle: This product is made out of plastic and it will be long lasting and maybe even more than 5 years. (1 out of 1)

 

Aesthetic appearance (Shape, color, texture): The shape of the product is an upside down cup. The color of the product is semi-transparent. Because it is made out of plastic it is going to be smooth and hard. (1 out of 1)

 

Quality Assurance: Quality assurance is scheduled to be held once in 3 months. (1 out of 1)

 

Quality Control: I will check while I’m making the product so that is will work and at the end there is a high possibility that it will work. (1 out of 1)

 

Cost: The cost of this product is about 15-20TL because I will try to use materials in the DT room, which will make my product cheaper. (1 out of 1)

 

Time scale and planning: It will take about 40 hours to make my product because it is hard to make but all I have to do is glue things together. (1 out of 1)

 

Health and safety: My product will have less dangerous parts because I will file the sides. (1 out of 1)

 

Weight: The weight is going to be less then 10 kg because it is going to be made out of plastic and it is going to be lighter than when it is made out of wood. (1 out of 1)

 

6) Plan

a) Tools that are used

 

Name

Picture

Pencil

 pencil

Paper

 1-04560-00_Embossed_Writing_Paper_G

file

 004.jpg323223c3-7b73-4505-b966-4117f2d042a3Larger

gluegun

 glue

Drill

 26 develo

Steel Rule

 steel_ruler

Marker

 6a00d8341c666c53ef011168693e1d970c-500wi

Coping saw

 coping4

 

b) Materials used

 

Name

Picture

Small gear

 GEAR101HB_lg

Big Gear

 SAMSUNG

Dowel

 TWD

Plastic sheets

 plastic

Rubber seal

 rubber

Small plastic cup shape

 31e8hfJzdAL._SY300_

Big plastic cup shape

 371970899_681

High density foam board

 23 develo

 

Steps

Numbered list of jobs and tools to use

Create scale model. 10 minutes

2.

Find different materials. 20 minutes
3. Ask Mr. Thorburn about what we have to be careful when we are using the tools. 10 minutes
4. Get out the small gears and the dowel. 2 minutes
5. Get out the steel rule and cut the dowel so that the height is 430 mm. 5 minutes
6. Get out the files and file the end so that it will become smooth. 10 minutes
7. Get out the glue gun and heat it up. glue gun 5 minutes
8. Glue the end of the dowel on the smaller gear. 3 minutes
9. Leave the dowel and the gear to dry. 10 minutes
10. Get out the plastic sheets. 5 minutes
11. Cut the plastic sheets in rectangles which are 360mm by 50mm. 20 minutes
12. File the end of the plastic sheets so that they are not rough and so they are smooth. 20 minutes
13. Get out the big gear. 1 minute
14. Heat up the glue gun. 5 minutes
15. Stick each of the rectangles on the big gear so that 50mm are at the bottom. 10 minutes
16. Glue each of the sections together and make sure that the glue doesn’t smear on the other places on the machine. 10 minutes
17. Leave the machine too cool. 5 minutes
18. Get out the rubber seal that will be on top of the plastic cylinder. 18 develo 1 minute

19.

Go in to the middle and cut a whole that is 40 mm long in diameter. 10 minutes

20.

Test to see if an umbrella actually fits in the hole. 10 minutes

21.

If it does, continue to the next step, if it doesn’t, widen the hole or use another rubber seal to create another hole that is more suitable. 20 minutes

22.

Try to put the rubber seal on to the big plastic cylinder and rubber band it to the cylinder. 5 minutes

23.

Get out a blue high density foam board. 23 develo 1 minute

24.

Get out both the gears and set it on the high-density foam board. 5 minutes

25.

Mark the center of the gears with a pencil. 2 minutes

26.

Ask Mr. Thorburn to drill a hole in the center of the gears. 26 develo 10 minutes

27.

Get out the left over dowel from before 1 minute

28.

Cut the dowel in to 30mm pieces. 5 minutes

29.

Put each of them in the holes and glue them in place. 10 minutes

30.

Get out the biggest transparent upside down cup. 1 minute

31.

Cut a circle out on the top which has a diameter of 60 mm. 5 minutes

32.

Cover the two gears with the cup. 1 minute

33.

Check if it is working. 5 minutes

34.

Fix anything else that is necessary for a better product. 5 minutes

7) Works Cited Development

Works Cited

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“Inclined Plane.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2013. <http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/284758/inclined-plane>.

“Mechanical And General Engineering – Simple Machines – InclinedPlane.” Mechanical And General Engineering – Simple Machines – InclinedPlane. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2013. <http://www.swe.org/iac/lp/inclined_03.html>.

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