The Great Tempera Experiment, Part 2

I. Final sketch


Sketch with Grid


Sketch with erased Grid

For this project we picked a part of our face and we are going to sketch that part of our face with a pencil. This is the main part; we are going to use Egg tempera paint to color our paintings.

There are a lot of objectives in this project. The first objective is using realism. We are drawing parts of our face and our face is a real thing. For this to be a good “renaissance” painting, we have to make sure that realism is alive in the painting. We are doing this by drawing grids on to the photo of our face. This is going to be described in detail further on in part 2.

Another objective is that we are going to try our best to capture value. Value is somewhat a part of realism because it is the shades of grey, which makes a painting, look 3D. Our objective is to use the egg tempera’s to make sure that we use every shade of grey. We have a lot of experience of this value since we have worked on it since we the beginning of the year working on the fish, and I think we will meet this objective quite well.


The third objective is that we are going to be learning about the skills of egg tempera and applying them in to the context of our painting. We have learned while we made practice value scale with the egg tempera that we have to layer the egg tempera to get a darker color. Also we learned about hatching and cross-hatching. Hatching is the technique of crossing and painting the part from one side to another accordingly. Cross-hatching is the technique of adding to the hatching technique with a different angle of painting.

The last objective is using proportion of the face. Proportion also links with the point of realism. If the proportions are done wrong, the part of the body won’t look real. By using the grids on Photoshop, our objective is to get the proportion of the face right.

My goal for this project is to make sure that I get the value right. This is my goal because like I mentioned in my previous blog posts, I have some probably telling the difference between coloring it in the right color and shading with value. I thought it was very hard to show value with a different color and I am going to work on this and make it perfect since this is my weak spot.

I will accomplish this by doing some value scales in my free time. Before you actually do the final project, it is always nice to practice and make perfect your skills before you make a mistake on your final product. This is what I am going to do because I am going to use colors other than black to shape and make a value scale. After I do this, I might also use some of my eggs at home to practice using my own home made egg tempera.

Currently, we are at the stage when we finished sketching our faces on to the final piece. We had to do it with light pencil so that it would look nice in the final product. The stage that comes after the stage that we are waiting to do is to paint it with the colors that we have.

II. Photoshop Face with Grid

스크린샷 2014-02-13 8.10.35 PM

This part of my face is the mouth, lower jaw and my hair. There are some parts of my clothes and shoulders that are visible. I chose this part of my face because I have dimples in my cheeks and I thought it would be interesting to try to draw it. Also I thought that drawing my hair would be interesting because my hair is very curly and thick which will be nice to try to add texture to using egg tempera.

There are a lot of steps that we took up until we got the stage of the final sketch:

1) We opened up the app of photo booth on our mac books and took a picture of a place on our face. For me, it was the jaw.

2) Then we clicked on the Photoshop Cs5 app on our mac books.

3) We then clicked on File – New…. we then opened a new document.

4) After a window pops up and we have to change the units to inches and make sure that it is 7 inches by 5 inches or vise versa depending on your picture size.

5) After we click on photo booth and drag our pictures on to the Photoshop app.

6) Then we adjust the picture for it to fit on Photoshop.

7) After because we didn’t have the measurements done, we had to add the measurements in inches. We did this by clicking on Photoshop- Preferences – Units & rulers… We then click on the inches.

8) Now that we have the rulers, we made it so that the photo was divided in to 8 equal rectangles. The measurements were 1.75 inches by 2.5 inches.

9) We “dragged” the ruler to the side to create the guidelines, which is the main part of this project.

10) Then we have the picture all and ready to draw on the real draft.

11) Now we have the Photoshop ready we divide the paper in to the same amount of inches, which is 1.75 inches and 2.5 inches so that we have 8 rectangles.

12) Then we draw using the Photoshop document taking in consideration of the grid.

13) After we are finished, we erase the guidelines.


            The grid has been helpful to the creation of my sketch because I knew were things were going in my drawing. For example, I noticed that the lips are finishing at the very tip of the third box on the top and I used this to draw it the same way and as realistically as possible. This helped me make sure that proportion was accurate. You know it is accurate and you can make it accurate because there are different blocks and you can just concentrate on one of the blocks and not all of them.


III. Egg tempera experiment


The pigment that our team used was Cocoa powder. We had a lot of process stages to make the perfect paint:


1) Even though the Cocoa powder was fine I grinded it again to make sure that we could prevent lumps from happening when we would actually make the paint.


2) After this we cracked the egg and separated the whites from the yolk and poked the skin of the yolk to get the inside out.


3) After this, we put some water inside the egg to make it become a creamier yellow.


4) With the pallet knife we put 3 scoops of cocoa powder and mixed it together.


5) While we were mixing it, some of our group members made the test sheet with 4 squares so that we could test our paint.


6) In the first trial, it turned out that the paint was too gooey because there wasn’t much water. We used cross hatching skills to color the first test 1 box in.


7) We added one more spoon full of water to the first paint and we got the second color.


8) We used hatching to color in the second test and we believe it was the best paint.


9) Some of us agreed in that time that the test 2 was too light so we added one more spoon of cocoa powder.


10) We used cross hatching to color in the test 3 square but it turned out it was too thick.


11) Now we had some remains of the test 2 so we added two more spoons or water to test 2.


12) We used hatching to color in the last box. However, it turned out too Light.


13) It turned out the perfect paint was the test 2.


Some things that I have learned about Cocoa powder is that it is a very dark colored pigment. Even when we used charcoal for the pigments, it didn’t work this well while the cocoa powder creates darker tones easily. Also, because the cocoa powder is already really fine, it created no lumps in the paint, which made it easier for the painter to use. Overall, it was a successful piece of paint and I learned a lot about it.


As I said before, the Cocoa powder was very successful and it can even be compared to the other grinded charcoal egg tempera that we have used. Even though these charcoals are used for art professionally even though not for this purpose it didn’t work well that the cooking material of the Cocoa powder. This was successful as well because there were no lumps created because it was a very fine pigment. However, sometimes it would create bubbles in the egg tempera paint. I think this was because we mixed it too much and because the paint was very gooey. This is a minor issue though and I believe that this is a very good potential paint that we should use while we are continuing this project.


Before we did these value scales we also did a value scales with the powdered charcoals, which were of a brown color and a blue color. I believe that my pigment, cocoa powder will be more successful while painting my piece. This is because first of all, the colors are darker for the cocoa powder. You can just tell by seeing the colors of the two pigments. The cocoa powder is of a deeper and darker shade, which means that it will create darker shadows, which is what I need for my piece. Also there are less lumps in my pigment because they were already fined when they came in. However, we find the charcoal is lumpier and creates less quality paint. Overall, I think my pigment is better than the charcoal pigment.




Works Cited


N.d. Photograph. Wikispaces. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <>.



4) Mystery Student Led Discussion

1. Discussion Video: Lannisters I

This is the google hangouts recorded video of the discussion of the Lannisters I group.


2. Discussion web

This is the discussion web drawn to find who talked to who during the discussion. One can see that everyone talked and the web is generally spread around and we talked more than once.
3. graphic organizer/active readings

These are some of the graphic organisers and mini active readings we did. For the mystery discussion, we had The first one is the graphic organiser that we wrote about the book by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle “The tale of the Speckled Band”. Then there are the two mini active readings on “The tale of the Speckled Band” and the book by Agatha Christie “Death on the Nile”.

4. Questions

1) Did the Mystery SLD help your understanding of the genre of mystery or literature in general? If so, how? If no, why not?

The mystery student led Discussion helped my understanding of the genre of mystery and literature in general because I not only knew my knowledge on the mystery genre, all of my group mates also knew information and we shared it together. This helped us mend in any holes in our knowledge that we had.

Also we talked about each element of mystery fiction and how it applied to the books that we had read and the extra short readings and movie that we watched. This way we could clarify our knowledge and share it with the team. This also made little debates in the middle about which story had a good sense of the elements of mystery fiction and it was interesting and it also helped me clarify the meanings of the elements of mystery fiction.

After the discussion and looking back on it, I wondered what would happen if we were reading another genre of a book. What elements would that genre have. I became interested in another aspect of english literature.


2) How would you change this activity to better fit the course needs? Would you have it over just one reading? Your own book? Be specific please. 

Even though this discussion and activity helps me learn new things and is good in many ways, there are a lot of things that I would change in this activity to make it more of a corporative activity.

First of all,  what I would change is that we are too free to talk about what we want to. I noticed while we were doing the discussion that sometimes we were looking at each other because we ran out of topics to talk about and we couldn’t think of any. There were plenty of themes but we just didn’t have a frame we had to pick from. Next time, I think it would be best if we were given a broad question or a topic that we could talk about. That way we won’t get lost. There was only one thing I would change but there are two things that I want to keep same that we changed from the previous discussions.

Second of all, I would never have it over one reading because I saw while we were doing the Romeo and Juliet student led discussions that students will just repeat round and round what was said before which really got the audience and the participators board. When we were doing this activity we had about 3 books that we could relate to the speckled band, Death on the Nile and your own book (coincidentally Death on the Nile was my book). This was one change that was made to the previous discussion which I think we should keep because I realised that I had more things to say.

Lastly, one thing that I would keep that we added new to this discussion was the idea of putting our books when we were talking about it. Because my book was Death on the Nile, I didn’t get to get a word in about my book but some of the others did which was great and we had a time to find out about each other’s books which was a good opportunity to find great books to read. We should do this more often.


3) What did you think of the google form for feedback? Did you like the Hangout chat you were able to have during the discussion? What other activities could we use to better engage those who are watching the discussion?

There were a lot of tools that we used other than the discussion and the pieces of papers. We used google form for feedback and Hang out chats.

First of all, I thought that the idea for the google form for feedback was great because some of us are very slow at writing and for me, it really helped me write any positive or constructive feedback right after someone in the discussion made the statement. This way, I remember when I read my comments what I was talking about and how their overall, discussion was. I can also remember specific comments that the peers have made which is one good thing.

Second of all, we used the Hang out chat. I didn’t see the hang out chat until in the weekends which was unfortunate but I saw what the class talked about and I thought it was very useful because you can share your opinion on the other team’s discussion together to see what you can write in your own google form.

Lastly, some other tools that we can use to better engage the audience is after the other team has their discussion we should have more time to give them more thorough feed back because 3 minutes is not a lot of time. Also, this will help prepare us for the next discussion and we will be able to know what we could have improved from their discussion.

3) Mystery Novel Review

1. About Death on the Nile: My mystery Novel

Blog-DeathonNileCoverTitle: Death on the Nile

Author: Agatha Christie

Genre: Mystery- Cozy

About: This book have a detective (protagonist) who has a name of Hercule Poirot. He is a famous detective and is going to Egypt to have a rest on a cruise. On the cruise he meets a couple who are Linnet and Simon Doyle enjoying their honey moon. However, they tell him that a stalker who was Simon’s fiancé follows them everywhere that they go. Later it is found out that Linnet Doyle was killed. This is the puzzle. The whole book revolves around finding out who killed Linnet Doyle and why.


2. Rate the story by stars (our of five). 

I give this book…

스크린샷 2014-02-13 6.12.34 PM

The reason I gave this book a 5 out of 5 was because it was both easy to analyse and a very fun read.
3. Write up a small paragraph giving your overall thoughts on the book. Did you like it? Why or why not? 

The overall, thoughts of this book to me was positive. Since I was little I started reading a series of mystery short children novels called “The Boxcar Children” by Gertrude Chandler  Warner. I started reading the whole series but I grew away from this series as I grew up. Since then I didn’t read much of mystery novels for fun. However, this book was the first mystery that I actually enjoyed since “The boxcar Children”.

I was fairly impressed how Agatha Christie makes is so that you get attached emotionally to the characters. Christie makes sure that the reader does not take the book out of your hand because you want to know what happens to the character.

I also liked how Christie deals with realism and logic in this novel. She made the reason of the crime which is that of a crime that is likely to happen in real life. This is money. There was nothing un realistic in this story.

Another thing that I liked was the way Christie Manipulated that red-herrings so that they would fool you. It is not easy to put in red herring and I know this because I am writing my own mystery fiction. The way that Christie puts multiple red-herrings is fascinating and adds the fun in to reading this story.

I would recommend this book for a fun read if someone likes mysteries that are suspenseful.


4. Would you recommend this book to another student for this assignment? Did it work well? Or not?

I said that I enjoyed this book and I would recommend this book for a fun read. I would also recommend this book to another student for this assignment. Because it has plenty of elements of mystery fiction and analysing it worked well.

First of all, it worked well because as I mentioned previously, it contains a lot of elements of element fiction. For example multiple red herrings are mentioned such as the J engraved with Linnet’s blood, the pearls that were thrown to the sea and etc. You can learn about how the red herrings are formed and how you can imply them in to your story.

Another reason why this worked well was because it was a typical Agatha Christie Cozy. There is a murder and her detective finds out what it is with detecting skills. It is not a thriller and is not fast passed which helps students find out the elements much easier.


5. Works Cited

Works Cited

Christie, Agatha. Death on the Nile. London: HarperCollins, 2001. Print.

N.d. Photograph. Carmelrowley. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <>.

7) Lines of Latitude on Longitude Questions

1. Introduction to Latitude and Longitude Reading


2. Questions and answers

1) How do lines of Latitude help to determine climate? Are high latitudes or low latitudes typically warmer weather? Why is this so? 

earthlatitudergbThere are two types of things that help us to determine climate. One of them is Latitude. Before I Go on about how latitude helps us to determine climate, what is latitude? Latitude is the line that crosses from east to west on the earth and it is measured in degrees. Inside the lines of latitude there are different types. There are Low latitudes, Medium latitudes, and high latitudes. As the lines of latitude is closer to the equator, which are the equator and the low latitudes, warmer it gets for the year. This is because The earth is a sphere and the equator is the closest to the sun all year which is why the equator gets more direct amount of solar radiation. as the latitudes get higher or gets higher in degrees, this means that the climate is colder because they get less direct amount of solar radiation.

2) What is altitude? 

definition-of-high-altitude Altitude is something that affects climate. The altitude is measured by feet and is the distance above sea level. The amount of altitude changes the climate and the vegetation change drastically. Altitude is divided in to four levels. The first one is at sea level which is 0 feet. The second is high altitude which ranges from 5,000 ft to 11,500 ft. The next level is very high altitude which is from 11,500 ft to 18,000 ft. The final level is extreme altitude which from 18,000 ft till beyond.Altitude sickness affect travellers starting from the high altitude hight of 8,000 ft. Alitude sickness is what humans get when they have a lack of oxygen which is also called “thinner air” (Easmon) which means that air pressure decreases.Therefore as the altitude gets higher, the amount of oxygen decreases as well as the amount of temperature.

3) How does altitude affect the climate? 

There are two types of things that help us to determine climate. One of them is altitude. There is a rule for altitude and temperatures drop accordingly. If 1,000 feet goes up from sea level, about 3°F drops from the temperature.

4) Draw/create a sphere.

스크린샷 2014-02-13 7.07.28 AM

a) On the please show five special lines of latitude.

The five special lines of latitude are The equator (0°), Tropic of Caner (23 1/2 °N), Tropic of Capricorn (23 1/2 °S), Arctic Circle (66 1/2 °N), and the Antarctic Circle (66 1/2 °S).

스크린샷 2014-02-13 7.13.17 AM

b) Why are these lines significant? Explain which lines are hit “head on” and those that tend to “glance off” and why? 

These lines are significant because of the tilt of the earth and the revolution of the earth around the sun. One time in the year, there is a time when the radiation hits exactly directly the middle of the Tropic of cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn but there are no times when the sun is directly on each of the lines. The equator is the line that hits “head on” every time because the angle of the suns rays decrease and when it gets farther from the tropic of cancer north and tropic of capricorn south, the angle increases which is one of the reasons why these reasons are colder than the equator. While the countries near the equator gets solar radiation from “head on”, countries that are farther from the equator and as the lines get further, the distance that the solar ray has to travel increases which is why the lines tend to “glance off”.

5) What causes seasons?

gr12Seasons are caused mainly because of the tilt of the earth. There are 6 months of the year when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun which is from June 22- December  21. This means that the southern hemisphere is tilted outwards to the sun. This happens vise versa in the other 6 months of the year which is December 22- June 21. when the Northern hemisphere is closest to the sun and is tilted towards the sun, this means that they are having summer and the Southern hemisphere are having winter. This is the same when the Southern hemisphere are having summer, the Northern Hemisphere have winter.


3. Works Cited 

Works Cited

Easmon, Charlie. “Altitude Sickness.” Netdoctor. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <>.

“Effects of Altitude on Climate and Vegetation.” Effects of Altitude on Climate and Vegetation. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Abc Teach. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Tibet Discovery. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. World Maps Online. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <>.

6) “I am the worlds greatest explorer” Mary Kingsley

This is the post with everything on my “I am the worlds greatest explorer” video about Mary Kingsley. I have the Video, the script, source analysis, some extra info about the background of Mary Kingsley, and the works cited page.

My costume

My costume in case people couldn’t see because of the setting of the video (it was meant for it to be like that)


1. Video


2. Script

This is the script of my video. The in text citations are written in red.

(Note that sometimes there are going to be two or more in-text citations in one block of big red text so read carefully)

UntitledHello there! I didn’t realize you were there with all of my books around me. Let me introduce my self. My name is Mary Kingsley and I am an explorer and a writer from England. And, I am the best explorer in the world.  I was born in Islington, England, October 13th 1862 (Hanebutt).

Moving on, why am I the greatest explorer you ask? Well there are many reasons actually and I might have to shorten them in to three.

Untitled 2First of all, I was a woman explorer in the Victorian ages. This is one key point on why I am the best explorer. The Victorian Era was when Queen Victoria ruled with her love for Prince Albert from 1837 to 1901 (Britannica School).  In the Victorian era, a lot of women were in lower position then the husband and had the same rights as children. The women were usually responsible for cooking, cleaning, and caring for the children. All of the library-3women were considered lower than their husbands and were told to take care of the children (Küçük). However, I, Mary Kingsley, even though I lived in the Victorian Era, managed to explore the world and do what I want for my life, which is amazing, and people should acknowledge me better because I was a woman who stood out from all of the other women of England. This was probably because when I was younger my father George Kingsley also travelled the world on various expeditions. He taught me how to read and I had a wide access of books that I could read in the library (Simkin). In a way I was different than the entire woman in England and broke out of that shell of girls only have to work. This was my first reason why I am the greatest explorer.

Untitled 4Second of all, I write about my adventures. This might seem very simple but the fact that I write about my adventures show a lot about my adventures. Unlike other explorers who solely write or make someone write a journal to show their king or queen, I wrote my books to spread my knowledge to everyone. Also I didn’t write a very shallow book, I wrote a lot of details about the place. “…for away in their fastness the mangroves raise their branches far above the reach of tide line, and the great gray roots of the older trees are always sticking up in mid-air” (Kingsley 5). I don’t only want the knowledge of the lands to myself but I want to spread my knowledge to people around me. This is one other reason why I am the greatest explorer.

Untitled 3Lastly, I stood up for the Native Africans. I traveled around mostly Africa and learned about the lives and religions (Enchanted Learning). Even though I am not completely different from how the Europeans view the Native Africans, I have found out that their government was very well controlled and found it fascinating. I helped people think of Africans in a different way (Hanebutt). I also stated that Africans are not brutal degraded or cruel (Birkett; Kingsley). Unlike other explorers, I thought differently about the Africans, which is one of the reasons I am the greatest explorer. I had a wide range of mind and was open to different cultures.

You must surely think that now I am the worlds greatest explorer right? Well I better get going. See you next time.


3. Source Analysis


4. Background of Mary Kingsley


5. Works Cited

The Great Tempera Experiment, Part 1

1. What is egg tempera?

picEgg tempera is a type of paint that was used widely in the medieval period and the renaissance. Egg tempera is when you use a powder, which is called a pigment made up of dried materials. These pigments are usually colored and this is what creates the color of the paint. You mix a good ratio of water, egg yolk and pigment to create paint. Egg tempera dries very quickly and you have to layer them. 

2. Please include a brief history of egg tempera— when was it first used, who used it, etc.

The history and use of egg tempera goes back to the Greeks and the romans. They also used pigments that were dried materials such as umbers and other materials that could be found around them. They would also use stones of rich colors as well. Water was added to the pigments and was tempered. However this would not make the paint so they added the egg yolk to make it work. The egg yolk is the “binder” of the paint.

In the renaissance (15th century), it was widely used and was popular. A lot of painters and artists used this type of paint and one famous artist of this time is Botticelli. However, in the late renaissance a new type of paint was introduced which was oil paint. Oil paints didn’t dry as quickly as egg tempera and it had a lot of advantages than egg tempera. This is when egg tempera became out of fashion and “died” out.

 3. Please explain how you have made your own egg tempera.

There are a lot of steps to making your own egg tempera:

1) Get out all of the materials, which are: an egg, two pallet knifes, mortar and pestle, egg carton, pigment, toothpick, and water.

2) Cut the egg carton so that that could be your mixing plate.

3) Then crush the pigments with the mortar and pestle.

4) After the pigments are fined, get out the egg and crack it so that the yolk doesn’t break.

5) Take the yolk in your hands and make sure that there are no whites remaining.

6) Take the toothpick and poke the skin of the yolk spill the inside of the yolk on to the egg carton.

7) Add some water so that the color turns light yellow.

8) Mix with one pallet knife so that there are no lumps.

9) Add the pigments with the other pallet knife so that you can mix the right amount to get the perfect egg tempera paint.

The objectives of this assignment are to create neat, layered paintings of a section of your face, showing a strong use of value and a layering of colours.

4. What is your goal for this assignment, or what do you hope to achieve?

The goal for this assignment is to create a painting of a section of our face to show value and layering of colors. However, my goals for this assignment is to show the value of the face perfectly and look at every little detail on my face to find out which areas are darker than the other. Also because I have trouble layering the paint, I want to have it so that the paint is perfectly layered and my goal is to become patient so that I could wait until the painting dries to put another layer. I want to have a piece that reflects my face or looks similar to the part of my face. I want to use value well and make light and darkness noticeable.

5. How successful do you think our experiment will be?

I think our experiment will be very successful because we have trained a lot of egg tempera and we have a lot of experience. Some of us showed that we were naturals at egg tempera because we managed to make the paint well in our first try. Also we can reflect from the fish paintings of how we are going to do when we do the egg tempera paintings. Even though some peers thought that it wasn’t going to turn out well because we were using charcoal instead of pencil to shade, we still were very successful at making wonderful pieces. We have practiced hatching and cross-hatching when we were making our value scales before with different colors of pigments two times and I think this was a good experience for us to actually work on the real paintings of our face. Our class has a lot of skills in depicting values and shades of gray from the past unit of value scales. Also we learned to observe our selves in the contour drawings and to draw every single detail. Because of these reasons I think our experiment will be successful.

6. Do you have any suggestions or tips to help us create successful pieces?

            Even though I said that we were going to have a successful experiment, there are still suggestions and tips that I would give to the peers and myself. The first is, observe what you are drawing very well. Observation is the key to drawing a realistic painting and we have to try to add every detail that we can observe with our eyes. The second is, value. Value is very important because it is what makes your piece becomes 3D and realistic. Even if you observe the pieces of your face well, you can’t draw a realistic face until you learn to use value. I would suggest my peers and I to practice the value scale again or try a little piece with value again so we can revise what we did before. The last is colors. We have to remember to observe the colors perfectly and color them the way they look with the right pigments. Or else, no one will be able to realize what we are drawing because the colors are different.

 7. Which of the pigments brought into class do you think will work best for making egg tempera? Why? 
(these are located in the Grade 8 tray under the whiteboard, if you take them out, you must put them back)

            The pigment I think that will work the best is the Coco Pigment that I brought and the Herb pigment that Hyojee brought. The reason I think this is is first of all, they are fined already and there might be no need for them to be crushed and fined again. Also, another reason is because they are of fairly dark colors. The coco pigment is a dark brown color and the herb pigment is of a rich green color. These will be very useful and a crucial part of our experiment. 

8. What have you learned so far that you never knew before?

            I have a lot of things that I have learned. First of all, I learned that you could make paint with eggs. I have watched an art manga before and it said something about a villain giving the hero bad eggs so that their piece could be ruined. Back then, I didn’t know why eggs would change the painting but now I know that if you don’t use the right eggs, the eggs will crack the painting because it shrinks when it dries. Another thing that I learned is the names of some materials. For example I learned about the pallet knife and the mortar and the pestle, which I only knew in Korean. One last thing that I have learned is about the hatching and cross-hatching to create value to your piece. I didn’t know the exact word or the exact way to use this. However, I learned about this while in class. Overall, I learned a lot of things.


Works Cited

“Koo Schadler: Techniques.” Koo Schadler: Techniques. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Wwweggtemperacom. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <>.

“” Wwweggtemperacom. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <>.

5) Guns, Germs, and Steel Video Questions

1. Guns, Germs, and Steel Video


2. Guns, Germs, and Steel Video Questions and Answers

 1) At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry. Describe this weaponry.

harquebusAt the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry called the Harquebus. The harquebus is a type of gun, which was made lighter and portable by the Europeans but was made outside of Europe. It was activated by gunpowder. The harquebus was first used by foot soldiers on the battlefield. To people in the modern times this gun looks like a gun for fools because its aim is terrible and it takes such a long time to reload and can be killed while reloading. However, the Inca’s haven’t even got that far in battle technology and with the sound, smell, and smoke it makes, it is likely that they were very terrified of a weapon that they have never seen before.

 2)     What is Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze? 

Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bonze is simple. There is nothing brilliant about the Europeans for making steel swords and in fact making steel swords was available outside of Europe in the Fertile Crescent nearly 7,000 years ago. As the knowledge in the Fertile Crescent spread, the Europeans had access to the knowledge while the Inca’s weren’t because of their geographical status.


b. How did their diversified society help with this cause?

rapier Because European men wanted to develop the steel sword they went through different trials and errors in their diversified society with many people and different ideas. Because they went to a lot of wars, they found out that if there is more carbon the weapon becomes more handy and stronger. However, they learned that the swords have to be a little flexible for it not to break. One famous sword is he rapier. While the Spanish had a lot of experience and the society for the weapons to develop likes wars with the moors, the Inca Empire had less experience


 3)     What battle tactics did the conquistadors to help them defeat the large Inca army use? 

CortesPizarro and his most trusted men thought of a plan to battle the Incas. The battle tactics that the conquistadors used to help them defeat the large Inca army was to launch a surprise attack. This was not the first time that this tactic was used though. 12 years before Hernan Cortez used this on the Aztecs. The reason why Pizarro knew this was because of the book that Cortez published of the skills that he used to take over the Aztecs. Another thing that helped Pizarro and his men was the Aztec leader and his soldiers were unarmed. Also they first tried to persuade the Incas to become Christians but once they refused the proceeded in their surprise attack.


b. What did the Inca need to do to be successful in war?

The Incas needed a lot of things to be successful in war. Even though they had a lot of people, they had a disadvantage because they were lacking some of the things that the Europeans had. For example one was reading and writing (being illiterate). While Pissarro’s men could read and write from texts all around, the Inca people only hand local knowledge which definitely pulled them back. Also they should have thought more about how the Europeans are going to plan to meet them. When the Europeans were attacking them, they should have stood firm but they saw creatures such as horses that they had never seen before which was shocking for them.


 4)     According to Diamond, what made the Europeans “accidental conquerors”? 

According to Diamond, the Europeans didn’t become conquerors because they were smart or more intelligent than the natives. This in a way makes them “accidental conquerors and this revolves around guns, germs, and steel. Like mentioned before, they had more access to guns and the technology because they were closer to the Fertile Crescent than the Incas. Also, it is not because the Europeans had the specific gun technology because the guns of the Europeans weren’t very good either, it was because the Incas didn’t have any other weapons. This is the first point, which makes the Europeans “accidental conquerors”.

Another reason why the Europeans are “accidental conquerors” is because of steel. While the Americas were isolated and had no knowledge about steel, the Europeans got the knowledge of steel because of the Fertile Crescent’s knowledge spreading through the lands. Because the Incas only had bronze weapons and they didn’t bring the weapons to fight, so the Europeans naturally had more chances of winning and it wasn’t because they were smarter or such.

The last and most important reason the Europeans are “accidental conquerors” are because of Germs. Because a lot of Europeans lived with their domesticated animals such as cows, pigs, and chicken they had a lot of germs with them while the Incas didn’t have much domesticated animals. The only animal was the lama but they did not live with the humans. When the Europeans traveled to the new world, they brought a lot of germs including small pox that the natives were not prone to. This caused a lot of deaths. It is said that about 90% about the Native Americans were killed due to germs.


5)     Considering the entire scope of European exploration of the new world, what was the greater impact on world history?  In other words, how did European exploration and conquest of the New World shape our world today?  Please give three specific examples.  You may use outside sources to answer this question, but please use citations.

Because the European exploration of the new world happened, there are a lot of impacts that they had on our world today, both good and bad.

One way in which explorations of the new world affected our world today is by spreading germs around the whole world. Because of the cattle and domestic animals that the Europeans kept they were full of germs, which spread to the Native Americans who weren’t immune to the diseases. “It killed one third of the people and producing permanent pock marks in another third of its victims” (3.3 EUROPEAN DISEASE IN THE NEW WORLD). This is the sad part but there is a good part to this as well. The world became known with this disease and people can fix this and make vaccines.

One big thing that happened and impacted our world today was something called the Columbian exchange. There were both things, good and bad, that traveled back and forth between the new world (North America) and the old world, which is Europe. Some of the good things that were exchanged to Europe and the Americas were food. To Europe were sent “maize, white potatoes, sweet potatoes, and manioc” (Crosby). To the Americas were sent “wheat, barley, rice, and turnips” (Crosby). Also to the Americas, livestock were sent such as horses and cows. Even though goods were exchanged there were a lot of bad things that were exchanged as well. Diseases were also spread to the Americas. One of which is Small pox. This disease killed about 95% percent of the Native Americans that were living in North America.



Works Cited

“3.3 EUROPEAN DISEASE IN THE NEW WORLD.” UIC University of Illinois at Chicago. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <>.

Crosby, Alfred. “The Columbian Exchange.” The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2014. <>.

“Guns, Germs, and Steel: Conquest of the Americas | National Geographics Documentary.” YouTube. YouTube, 30 June 2013. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Apworldhistory2012-2013. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Clevelandcivilwarroundtable. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Mundibusiness. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Wikimedia. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.