Renaissance vs. Medieval Art

1. Medieval Art

Madonna, Lorenzo Monaco

Madonna, Lorenzo Monaco

The painter of this painting, Madonna, is Lorenzo Monaco. Lorenzo Monaco is a painter from Florence, Italy. His name literally means, “Lorenzo the Monk”. His real name is Piero di Giovanni but he is best known for his name of Lorenzo Monaco. He was born in c. 1372 and died in c. 1424. He is a very famous artist who painted gothic painting. He worked for Florence as an artist. In 1390, he studied religion in the Camaldolese monastery. He was there 1390 – 1395/1396.  Then he spent the rest of his lifetime fulfilling his time as an artist.

Moving on, the medium that Lorenzo Monaco used to draw Madonna was using tempera on panel. Tempera is a type of medium when you make paint with eggs and pigments. Pigments are dried powder to make different rich colors. For the eggs, you don’t just use the eggs; you just use the yolk of the egg because the white outer layer could make the painting unsuccessful. To make the tempera paint, you first get the egg yolk and then you mix it with a good ratio of water. Then you have to add the pigment and mix. The item that Lorenzo Monaco used to paint egg tempera on was a wooden panel. They were often used in the medieval and the renaissance times. They are flat wood that may be stuck to multiple pieces of wood.

Some good things about egg tempera are that it is non-toxic. Also you can create many different colors and colors you want by mixing pigments in the egg yolks. However, egg tempera also comes with disadvantages. Some are that egg tempera works well when it is used on panels made out of wood and not much of other papers. Another thing is that the paint dries very quickly. Also you can’t paint in thick colors and you have to layer them in order for it to create a darker shade of that color.

            From the painting’s title, one can infer that it is of Madonna or better-known Virgin Mary of the Christian religion. Madonna means Italian for “our lady”. From this, we can tell that this is a religious painting that was painted. Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus and is often depicted in art by herself or with baby Jesus. It is not common that she is not with her son Jesus in the paintings because the religious paintings usually describe the story of Jesus. However, there are some paintings with her alone, like this one.

            About the description of the painting, as mentioned before, the figure in the painting is Madonna, better known as Virgin Mary in the Christian religion. There are a lot of characteristics to the painting. First of all, I noticed that the background colors and parts of her clothes are painted with gold. In the medieval times, they often used gold when they were drawing religious characters of high positions such as Virgin Mary. Because the background and parts of her clothes were gold, her robe stands out better because the robe is of a vibrant blue color. Also, because the robe is wrapped around her head, the first thing that one’s mind goes to is her face, which might have been Lorenzo Monaco’s intention. This was a good idea because she is the most important part of the painting. The values of the robe is used well too because we can see every fold and the different shades of gray can be found in all of the folds. And the robe seems like it is that of clothing in real life. Also in the background, there are patterns engraved to it which adds to the inference that Madonna was a very exquisite and they had to decorate her.

Even though these are some good parts of the drawing, some parts such as the position of the face is lacking realism. This can be seen in the face part of Madonna. One can probably tell that her face is of a weird position that cannot be done in real life. Also the sizes and the proportions of the features of the face is un even because the nose and eyes are unbelievably long and the mouth is very small. Also the side of her face is too big and looks very flat. To improve this the tones of the face could be added such as shades of pink or red to make her seem more like real people. Also more shades could be added to the neck so that it would look like she was in a natural position.


2. Renaissance Art

Lady with an Ermine, by Leonardo Da Vinci

Lady with an Ermine, by Leonardo Da Vinci

The artist who painted Lady with an Ermine is Leonardo Da Vinci. He is from Florence, Italy. Italy was the heart of the renaissance. He is a very famous renaissance artist who was born on April 15th, 1452 and died on May 2, 1519. Because he was an illegitimate son of Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, unlike the other siblings of his, he wasn’t allowed to learn or wear good clothes. However, his father sent him to Verrocchio’s workshop when Leonardo was fourteen. He then learned various artistic skills by being an apprentice of Andrea di Cione or Verrocchio. When he was twenty he became a master in Guild of St Luke and began his professional life. He has a lot of famous pieces, two of which are Lady with an Ermine and Mona Lisa.

The medium that the artist used to draw this was oil and wood. In the medieval times, they used a lot of egg tempera. Even though they still used it in the renaissance, they moved on to something that was oil paintings. Oil paintings are similar to make with tempera paintings except that instead of putting pigments in the egg yolk, you put the pigments in the oils. Unlike egg tempera, which was used a lot in the middle ages, oil paintings became popular due to its thick and brilliant color. Unlike the tempera paint, which dries very quickly, oil paint, dries very slowly which helps the artist to mix the colors or change something if they wan to. These features make oil paint very easy to deal with, and it has a better outcome. However, the oil paint has a tendency to crack because when it dries, it shrinks. This is one of oil paints defects.

            What this painting can be depicted by the title of the painting, which is Lady with an Ermine. Unlike some pieces you can’t really tell what it is about because a story or a sign of a story isn’t depicted in the painting. However, one can see that the Lady with the ermine is looking at a distance with the ermine and one can tell that they are both looking at something interesting. With some research I have found out that this drawing is of a woman called Cecilia Gallerani, who was Leonardo’s Patron.

This is a very exquisite piece of work and a lot of things can be described. For example, because the background is a darker color, the colors where the light is hitting the lady, which is her face, is emphasized which might be the point of this painting. Also, the band that goes around her head has a shadow that is painted under it so one can see exactly where the band is on her head and how the elastic is squeezing it. The proportions of this piece are great because her eyes and nose and mouth are in a position and size of how real people would look like. Also the ermine looks like it is in the lady’s arms and not in the air. Also the values were used well because the shadings of the clothes, make it seem like a person can actually touch the fabric and it seems like velvet. The colors were used very well because there are not a lot of bright lively colors and dark colors together that were used. The color’s used were all rich dark colors which helped the piece look more fine and darker with no breaks when someone looks at the painting.


3. Compare and Contrast



            These art works that I have introduced, Madonna by Lorenzo Monaco and Lady with an ermine by Leonardo Da Vinci, have a lot of similarities and differences.

First of all, Madonna and Lady with an ermine have a lot of similarities. For example, the backgrounds are one whole color, which makes both of the lady’s stand out compared to the background and it makes us focus on the people more rather than the things behind them. Also how value is used to make the robe for Madonna and the dress for the Lady seem like real fabric is similar because they both used shading techniques to make sure that the fabric seems real and flowing. Another similar and obvious fact is that both of them are drawings of women, however, one is with an animal. One last similar fact is that they both aren’t looking front and are looking sideways.

Even if there are a lot of similarities, there are a lot of differences as well. For example, the proportions are one of the major differences. When the lady with an ermine has the features of a person in the face such as the size of the eyes, nose and mouth, Madonna doesn’t have equal features. Lorenzo Monaco made it so that her nose is longer and her mouth is very small. Her eyes are longer to the sides and the side of her face is very big making her seem abstract. Another difference is that the Lady with an ermine uses more colors, which makes the piece seem more real and vibrant. In real life, even though there seems to be only one color of something, there are a lot of different colors in that one color as well. In Madonna, primarily two colors where used which were blue and gold. However, in Lady with an ermine a variety of colors were used for example black, red, white, brown, gold etc. which made the piece seem more realistic. Also oil paint was used when drawing lady with an ermine when in Madonna, egg tempera was used. These made lady with an ermine have more vibrant colors and Madonna with stale light colors.

As I mentioned before the use of values affect the difference or similarity between these two paintings. Even though I mentioned that the use of value were used very good in both of the paintings considering the shades of the robes, the value was used better in the Lady with an ermine than Madonna. Even though Madonna used a lot of different values and shades of grey to make the robe look more real, he lacked in making the face with different values therefore, making the face look more flat and boring. This can be seen the side of her face. The side of her face looks very flat because there aren’t a lot of shades added to the face. This can also be seen in the nose because the nose looks small thanks to the little shading that was put in to it. A suggestion that can made for the artist is that if he added more darker values, he can make the piece look more realistic like the Lady with an Ermine.

Just as the use of values affect the different or similarity between these two paintings, the artists’ understanding of proportion and anatomy affect the difference or similarities between these two paintings. First of all, this can be seen best in the proportions of the face. When the sizes of the ermine and the lady are according to how people look in real life now, the face of Madonna looks unreal because the proportions are weird considering that the nose is too long and abnormal and the mouth is very small. Also Madonna’s face was very big compared to her body unlike the lady with an ermine, which was the right size for a body like hers. The anatomy of Madonna’s neck went wrong and one can infer that the artist clearly didn’t know much about an anatomy of a human body. However, Da Vinci can be seen using a lot of anatomy by looking at the bends in the lady’s hands and how to claws are bent in the ermine.


4. On Renaissance art

Before we talk a bout the artwork and the artists of the Renaissance, we must talk about how different the Renaissance and the medieval art were and why they are different. As the Germanic tribes came in, in the medieval period there were diseases and famines and little community. Therefore, a lot of people were dependent on god and the church. However, since the start of the Renaissance, things started to change a bit. The Renaissance actually means “rebirth” and this is what the period was about. The works of art, science, math etc. from the roman and Greek times were re discovered and in the renaissance, people cared about knowledge more than in the medieval times where everything revolved around religion. Also it was believed that the artists of the medieval times weren’t allowed to be better than each other and to be on the same level while it was different in the renaissance. The renaissance had an idea of individualism.

For the artwork, in the medieval times, the artists only drew things telling stories of the bible or a religious figure since the period was all about god and religion. However, in the renaissance, the idea of humanism came to place. Humanism is the philosophy of thinking that humans were the most superior beings. While in the medieval period the artwork looked flat and unrealistic, the artwork of the renaissance looked alive and real because of humanism and anatomy of the human body. This was because they cared mostly about humans and not much of religion.

The things that the artists of the renaissance were trying to accomplish were humanism and realism. Because they cared about humans they wanted to draw them as they saw them. Also they wanted realism of the human body and the proportions, values, and anatomy.

Like mentioned before, the thing that renaissance artists wanted to accomplish was realism and humanism. To learn and accomplish these goals the renaissance artists took a lot of risks. First of all to learn anatomy they under took something called dissection or an autopsy. A dissection or an autopsy is when people take apart a once living thing to find out what goes on inside of the human. Some of the artists would go and dig up graves or cut open dead criminals. An artist name Caravaggio went to an extreme by actually murdering a person. By doing a dissection, the artist learned about the muscles and insides of the human body, which made it possible for them to draw such realistic figures.

As the thoughts of humanism and realism as changed the use of value and the understanding of proportion and anatomy in the Renaissance changed art as well.

First of all, the use of value changed renaissance art. In the renaissance most of the colors is all one tone and the artists didn’t know that there were different colors in one color. For example, even if a pink pencil looks pink, there are sides and values where it is darker than the rest. However, in the renaissance times, the artists looked around and observed their surroundings, which made their artwork more realistic and improved their artwork.

Secondly, the understanding of proportion changed renaissance art. In the medieval times one can see that the proportion of the human body was not right. Sometimes the head will be too big or vise versa etc. However, in the renaissance this didn’t happen because the artists observed the human body often going to the extreme of having an autopsy of the human body. The understanding of proportion made the artwork of the renaissance look more realistic and more 3D.

Lastly, anatomy in the renaissance changed art in the renaissance as well. Like mentioned before, the renaissance artists had an autopsy on people and that helped them learn about anatomy, which is the study of the body. By looking at the insides of the animals or people, they learned about how the inside works and that helped them to draw the outsides as well.


my fish drawing


Screen Shot 2014-01-19 at 7.54.07 PM

my value scale

Throughout this unit, I have developed a lot about my understanding of value, proportion, and anatomy. For value, I never knew about value that much until I have learned it in this class. I have done the value scale before but I had done it with hatching and I had no idea that it was called the value scale since I learned it in Korean. I learned from value that even though an object seems like it is one color, it has many shades of grey in it and that it is not the same color. Also I learned that the value scale doesn’t always have to be white to dark, it can be any color on the value scale. For proportion, I learned that this was a critical part of drawing and a critical part of being an artist. For example, this was used when we were drawing the fish. For the fish, Miss. Zaza taught us how to make the proportion just right by having a ratio of the charcoal and the fish to find out how much bigger the body is to the tail. I used this and I learned that I must also do this in the future. I also learned about and developed my thoughts on anatomy. Because we cut open the fish and drew the bones I found out how the insides are important and how they look. Also I learned from the insides of the fish that the insides were very dark and deep so we had to use value to show this.

Finally, I have improved a lot as an artist as I had a lot of experience these past few weeks. For example, I learned about how to hold a brush when using egg tempera. I had to hold it softly and not rub the brush on the canvas. Also found out about some different elements of art, which is line, and value and they were very useful. I am looking forward to finding more about these as I go up grades. Also I became a better artist by improving my observation skills. From the contour drawings I first learned about observation because you had to catch every little detail. And from the fish drawings and the bone trial drawing I also learned this because there were little details that I had to catch. Overall, I enjoyed this unit.


Works Cited

도, 병훈. 청소년을 위한 서양미술사. 서울: 두리미디어, 2013. Print.

“AAM—The Renaissance Connection: Lesson Plans: Tempera versus Oil Paint.” AAM—The Renaissance Connection: Lesson Plans: Tempera versus Oil Paint. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Are You Sure?” Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <,0>.

“English Definition of “anatomy”” Anatomy Noun. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2014. <>.

“Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.” Anatomy in the Renaissance. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2014. <>.

“Lady with an Ermine, by Leonardo Da Vinci. 1483-90. Oil on wood, 53.4 x 39.3 cm. Czartoryski Museum, Krakow. <>.

“Lady with an Ermine, by Leonardo Da Vinci. 1483-90. … | Renaissance…” Pinterest. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Leonardo Da Vinci Biography.” Leonardo Da Vinci Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Lorenzo Monaco.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Madonna (art).” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Jan. 2014. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Madonna.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Madonna, Lorenzo Monaco. 1381-1425. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum” <>.

“Madonna, Lorenzo Monaco. 1381-1425. Amsterdam, … | Medieval Art.” Pinterest. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Madonna, Religious.” – Origins of Marian Art, Emergence of the Mothering Madonna, Sentiment versus Scripture. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Oil Painting.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Jan. 2014. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Panel Painting.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Jan. 2014. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“Tempera Painting.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

“What Was the Difference in History between the Middle Ages (Medieval Times) and the Renaissance?” What Was the Difference in History between the Middle Ages (Medieval Times) and the Renaissance? N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2014. <>.

“Why Egg Tempera? Advantages and Disadvantages.” Why Egg Tempera? Advantages and Disadvantages. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>.

2) Romeo and Juliet Act IV&V

1. Discussion Web

lannisters 2.pdf

This is the Discussion web of our group. One can notice that the lines are very well spread and at least one person spoke once. There is no side where a person talks to one person only, we all talk together as a team.

2. Active Reading: write a one paragraph explanation of what the document is, and what its purpose is


These pictures are pictures of something called an active reading which we do in English class. For Romeo and Juliet, we did this for each act. In the active reading, we had to review a few things. The sections are Brief Summary, Predicting, text to self, text to text, text to world, figurative language, vocabulary/diction, important quotations, conflict, and questions. The purpose of this document is for us to organise our thoughts and prepare for the up comming class discussion.

3. Video of Discussion


4. Improvements made and goals of improvements

I have made a lot of improvements since the last discussion. One point being that I was more calm in this discussion than before. It seemed that in the discussion before, a lot of people were like tigers trying to pounce on meat to speak. I went with this as well and I was very mad when people didn’t let me speak or if they interrupted me. After this discussion I learned that I need to be calm in order for the discussion to go well for me and my classmates. That is why in this discussion I was more calm when I was speaking and it turned out that a lot of my other classmates were calm as well which leaded in to a smooth discussion.

A way that I improved in my class discussion is that I used the discussion web and our in-class feedback. For example, a way that I used my discussion web to improve is that I saw that last time I talked a lot and realised that I should listen to other peers more than talk. This is what I tried to do in the next discussion. An improvement made because of the in class feedback was that my peers told me that our team would usually talk over each other and would have dominators. That is when I realised that in the next discussion I should try not to talk over people which was what I did often.

A thing that I want to continue improving regarding student-led discussions is using the active reading sheets while i am doing the discussion so that I can talk about things that are inside the active reading. Even if we have good topics the discussion, the topic can’t develop if there is no examples or relations. For example some example can be quotes from the text. I want to improve on fitting the quotes in the right places so that the discussion can run smoothly. Another thing that I want to improve on is adding different vocabulary from the story when I talk normally. This will seem more casually and it will show that I have read the book a lot.

Overall, to wrap this document up, I am going to talk about what I thought the moral of Romeo and Juliet was. I think the moral of Romeo and Juliet was don’t act on emotion. This can be seen in different places such as when Romeo sees Juliet for the first time and falls in “love” with her and is following her to her garden. Another way that this can be seen is when Romeo is mad that Tybalt killed Mercrutio and he kills Tybalt for revenge. I thought the ending of Romeo and Juliet was like a warning for the readers saying, ‘don’t act on emotion. It can kill you.’

I enjoyed this book and I hope to read it again.

1) Exploration Video Questions

1. The Great age of Exploration Video 


2. The Great age of Exploration Questions


1) What are some reasons why Native Americans resent the fact that Christopher Columbus glorified for so long?

There are a lot of reasons why Native Americans resent the fact that Christopher Columbus glorified for so long. One example is because when Columbus and his shipmen came to the Islands they brought diseases that weren’t existent in that part of the land. Because the Native Americans were not immune to these diseases, a lot of them would become sick and die. Some people might wonder why the shipmen from Europe died but this was because they were already immune to the diseases that they had brought. Some diseases that the old world brought to the new world was smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, influenza, and Chicken Pox. When people living in the present look at these diseases, most of them can be fixed. But at this time this was not the case. It is recorded to be said that about 80% of the whole population of native Americans had deceased because of the diseases. If Columbus hadn’t found the Americas, then they wouldn’t have to see the dying of their loved ones, friends, and family.

Another reason why Native Americans resent the fact that Christopher Columbus glorified for this long was because the Europeans took their home and treated them like they were not people. Because europeans didn’t see a lot of Native Americans before and because of a different race. They took them as slaves and traded them like they were items. The Europeans also didn’t ask permission from the Native Americans to take their land and just took it from them.

2) Why do so many people think that Columbus shouldn’t be credited for discovering America?


A lot of people think that Columbus shouldn’t be credited for discovering America because people state that there were people who went to America before Columbus did such as the Vikings. the Vikings are Germanic tribes who liked to explore and were adventurous. Another stronger reason is because people believe the Norse Explorer Leif Ericsson discovered the Americas. When Leif Ericsson was banned from Iceland, he went in search for a settlement and that was when he found Greenland. However, it is not actually known who first discovered the Americas because there is no specific and precise data about history.

3) In the 1400’s, there was very little communication and trade between continents and yet today is difficult to imagine a world without these things. How do the countries benefit from these exchanges? How are these exchanges damaging?

In the 1400’s there was very little communication and trade between continents and yet today is difficult to imagine a world without these things. There are a lot of benefits and damages that happened because of these exchanges.


Some benefits are that by trading things we can get things that we don’t have from our own countries. For example, this can be seen in the Columbian Exchange. From the Americas to Europe there was a lot of trading going on. For example, from the Americas the Europeans brought things such as Pumpkins and Turkeys which greatly effected Thanksgiving in the current times. Some things that the Americas got from Europe was live stock, cattle, and sheep. This can also been seen in the silk road. For example, the europeans didn’t have a cooling system like we have now so they had no way to preserve except for spices and salt. There were a lot of spices in India so because they traded, this benefited the society.

Even though there are benefits, there are also damages as well. One aspect of a damage made was that they traded diseases as well. For example from Europe there were diseases such as small pox and malaria that were brought to the americas. From the Americas to Europe there were also diseases that were sent such as Polio and Syphilis. The reason why they were effected was because the other countries people were immune to it but the receiving countries were new to this and that is why they died off because of these diseases. Another damage is that racism started from seeing different people from different people. Since Europeans didn’t see Native americans or Africans, they thought that they could use them as slave which is not a good thing to be happening.

4) In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, what were some of the greatest differences between European culture and the native culture of the Americas?

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, there were a lot of differences between European culture and the native culture of the Americas. One of the differences were that when the Europeans came to the Americas, the Native Americans did not make an attempt to share their cultures and religions with the Europeans. Another thing was that the Europeans had a lot of weapons and they were rewired to concur and spread their culture around. That is why the Europeans had concurred the Americas because of their weapons.

Another difference was that the Europeans looked down on the Native Americans. There are three reasons to this. One reason was because they had no technology what so ever, second because they were not european, and third because they could not read or write. However, the Native Americans did not look down on the Europeans and accepted them in with hostility. It was soon that they would find out that these Europeans would steel their homes and claim it as theirs.

5) What cultural attitudes existed on the part of Europeans that made them feel that it was all right to buy and sell Africans or to enslave native Americans?

As mentioned before. There are about three reasons why Europeans felt that it was all right to buy and sell Africans or to enslave native Americans.slave-auction-new-orleans

One of the reasons was because the Native Americans and Africans had no technology what so ever. The Europeans had a lot of technology and most importantly they had weapons when the Native Americans lived by embracing and with nature. The Europeans looked down on them because they seemed more superior than them.

Another reason why Europeans felt that it was all right to buy and sell Africans or to enslave native Americans was because they were not european. In the past europeans haven’t talked or traded with different people from different countries which caused them to think that they were superior of all races. They felt that because Africans and Native Americans were different and they could treat them however they want.

A final reason was because they could not read or write. In that time, the nobel people were excepted to read or write and the servant couldn’t. This was the same for the Native Americans and Africans so the Europeans assumed that they were not smarter than them and treated them differently.

6) One of the biggest changes that resulted from the Great Age of Exploration was an unprecedented shift of world population across the Atlantic ocean. Discuss the results of these population shifts.

North_Atlantic_Ocean_laea_relief_location_map There were a lot of changes that resulted from the Great Age of Exploration in which there was an unprecedented shift of world population across the Atlantic ocean. However there is one big change which was the difference between how the people were treated. When the europeans moved to one side, they didn’t become poor and often became rich. However, the Africans or the Native Americans were forced and were used as slaves and were sold and bought. The results of this was that it was beneficial for the Europeans but it was a sad and tragic time for the Africans and the Native Americans.

7) How did restrictions on trade with the Far east help initiate the Great Age of Exploration?

In the time of the Great age of exploration there was a lot of problems with the muslim religion taking over the region of turkey. Because most of the countries in Europe where Christian, they couldn’t easily go to the east to trade with the asian countries. So the Europeans tried to do a lot of things to get to Asia which got a lot of interesting results.

One thing that Columbus tried to do was go the opposite way. Instead of going on land, he was going to go by the sea. A lot of people thought he was crazy because at this time, everyone thought that the world was flat. Columbus knew that if he went that way he would definitely find India which was the place that he was aiming to go. However, he stumbled on an island which is in the Americas. This restriction brought Columbus to find the continent that we call America.

Another way that this restriction brought benefits is because we “discovered” and explored some parts of Africa. Because going by land to Asia was restricted, Prince Henry tried to to around by sea to Asia. However he went across around the borders of Africa and claimed parts of them as his own territory. It was not after Henry was dead that the Europeans made their first Asian Colony.

Ferdinand_magellanA final way that this restriction brought benefits is because Europeans found out that the world was round. At this time, it was normal to think that the world was flat and everyone believed that was so. However, Ferdinand Magellan believed that he would travel around the world. This took a painstaking 3 years and just when people forgot about the voyage out of the 224 men that was sent out to the voyage 17 came back alive because the others died including Magellan himself. Because the routes were blocked we were able to know that the earth was round.

8) What were some of the factors unique to the Renaissance that helped propel the Great Age of Exploration

There are a lot of factors that were unique to the Renaissance that helped propel the Great Age of Exploration.


One aspect is that in the medieval times, there was not a lot of creativity and everything revolved around religion. In the Renaissance, there was still religion around, but a lot of scientists, artists, and historians had a lot of creativity and wanted to find out about different things which fuelled the Great Age of Exploration.

Another aspect is that the Europeans had the urge to spread their knowledge and religion around to different people. Europeans have this thought that they want to spread what they know to different people especially religion at that time because it seems like they are doing a good job. Another thing is that if they spread their knowledge it makes them feel smart and superior.


3. Works Cited

Works Cited

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“Vikings.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 June 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2013. <>.

The Fish Reflection

1. The type of fish example (Not the fish I drew)


2. Value Fish Drawing


3. What were the objectives of this assignment? (What were you asked to do?)

The objectives of this assignment was to draw the fish in front of us using different shades of grey from the value scale. Before we drew the fish, we learned about contour drawings and an art element called line. Now we are moving one step further in to learning about another art element which is called value. When we were learning about lines and contour drawings, we had to observe the thing that we are drawing and draw just using lines. In this assignment we were not only asked to observe the fish thoroughly, but we were also asked to make a sense of value to make the fish look more 3D. The important thing was that we used different charcoals which are the colours of sanguine, sepia, chalk, and charcoal to shade on a piece of paper. We had to do this in a double period.

4. What art element did you use in this assignment?

Like mentioned before, the art element that was used in this assignment was value. Before we did this, we learned about the element of line for contour drawings. We moved one step forward which was value. Value is the characteristic of a colour referring to lightness or darkness. There is something to represent value which is the value scale. The value scale shows all of the shades of grey from light to dark. We had to use these elements and all of the shades of grey to draw our fishes.

a) Value Scale

value scale

b) My Value Scale

Screen Shot 2014-01-19 at 7.54.07 PM

5. What medium did you use? (Medium is the material you used to create your artwork)

The medium that I used to create my artwork was different types and colours of charcoal. We also used a special type of paper which helped us smooth out the texture and shade large parts of the paper easily. One might think that there is only one kind of charcoal that is black. They are wrong because we used different types of charcoal which was sanguine (red), sepia (brown), charcoal (black), and finally chalk (white). Because we had all of these different shades, it was much easier for us to use the value scale to make our work look 3D and not like a cartoon character. Because we used charcoal as our medium and not pencil, it helped us save time by shading large areas of the same colour by just smoothing it out. It also helped me when I was shading two different shades together.

6. Do you think you were successful in meeting the objectives of this assignment?

Yes, I think I was successful in meeting  the objectives of this assignment and there are a lot of reasons why I think so.

First of all, I was successful because I succeeded in using value to make my fish look more 3D. One example of this can be seen in the eyes of my fish. By analysing the light in the fishes eye, I used different charcoal pieces and blended them together to make the eye look more 3D. This was also mentioned a lot in the critiques that we had as a class.

Second of all, I was successful because one can tell by looking at my picture that it is a fish. We had to use value when we were drawing the fish. We also had to look carefully at the fish and draw what we see exactly and what we were seeing was fish. I am successful because I think I have drawn what I saw with my eyes and I captured most of it and I am proud of myself.

Lastly, I was successful because I added a lot of little details. This can be seen in a lot of my fish. For example one is the insides of the fish. I saw a lot of bumps and pieces so I tried hard to add all of these in. Also I added the little textures of the shiny belly to make it seem more scaly like it was. Also I used some black to resemble the texture that was on the top part of the fish.

Overall, I think I was successful in meeting  the objectives of this assignment of drawing fish.

7. How do you think you could improve your drawing?

Even though there are a lot of things that I have achieved in this fish drawing, there are some things that I can improve as well.

The first thing that I can improve is making the transitions of the fish smoother. While some of the other peers’ fish were very smooth and spread out, I found out that mine was a little rough and didn’t seem like I was shading and I was colouring. This can be seen in the transition between the fin and the back. I can see that there is a little outline on the back that is separating the fin and the back from looking like it is one piece. Ms. Zaza also gave me feedback while I was drawing that I should make the transitions of the fins and the back smoother. If I had more time, I would make it smoother and make the transitions at ease and not rough.

The second thing that I can improve on is making sure that the insides is more contrasting so that it looks more inside. I tried my best to make it look like the insides of the fish was more in and darker because it doesn’t get more light. The top part worked well but the bottom part was a little bit too light. If I had the time, I would make the bottom part darker so that it would look more 3D and inside the fish.

Overall, these points are the things that I could improve on if I had the chance to.

8. What did you find challenging about this assignment?

There were a lot of things that I found challenging about this assignment, one of which was translating the shades of grey in to the colours of the charcoals. At first I thought that the shades of grey could only be expressed by white to black. However, this was not true. You could express the shades of grey with any colour which startled me. When we first had to do this project I didn’t know where to start because these were not grey colours and were shades of red or brown. However, I learned while sketching and analysing that I could actually turn the colours in to shades of grey.

Another thing that I found challenging was not colouring the fish but shading the fish. This might sound a bit weird but I had this problem. Because the fish was black and white, when one is colouring, they would use these colours. However, this was shading and the fish was indeed not red or brown. I had some problems shading it and not colouring. However, I managed to do it.

These were the things that I found were confusing in this assignment.

9. What did you find unique about this assignment? (Other than the smell!)

One thing that I found unique in this assignment was that we actually got to dissect the fish before we drew them. It was the first time that I ever dissected an animal and I thought that the first time would be in science class but I stand corrected. I never knew that art was this closely related with science and I found that very unique.

Another thing that I found unique was we used charcoal to sketch the fish. Before our class, all of the classes who did this project would use shading pencils to do this work and we were one of the first classes to use charcoal to draw fish. I thought this was very unique and it was the first time that I used charcoal for shading.

One last thing that I found unique about this assignment was that the partner’s fish would look similar to ours. This seems like I am stating the obvious but I found it very interesting. The little details would look similar and I was quite amazed.

10. How do you feel this assignment helped you grow as an artist?

This assignment helped me grow as an artist because I learned about two different elements of art which is line and value. I feel as if I have gained more knowledge that I had before about the elements of art and I am looking forward to learning all of the elements of art as the years and grades pass by.

Another way that this assignment helped me is by helping me observe little things. The purpose of this assignment was to look at the little differences and light and shade and put that in to our art work. I tried really hard on this and now this has affected my life style as well. When I observe art works or architecture in turkey, I look at it more deeply and catch the little differences or little unique parts and amaze my family. I think this is all thanks to this assignment.

Also the feedback given to me was very helpful as well. I learned my weaknesses and positive things from the critique that we had. My peers told me that I did a good job when I was shading in the eye and the fish and I did a good job of making it 3D. However, No one mention that the fish’s fin looks realistic so I am going to work on that when I get this opportunity again.

11. What did this assignment have to do with the Renaissance?

This assignment had a lot to do with the renaissance. One reason is because we were becoming like the renaissance artists. In the renaissance, artists and scientists would use dead criminals or dig up graves to do an autopsy on the corpses to know how the insides of the human body look like. This is what we did as well, however, we didn’t dig up graves.  We did the same but we dissected fish and analysed the different parts of the fish.

Also another thing that it has to do with the renaissance is that the artists were masters at value. In the medieval times, they would make flat and boring drawings or paintings with no value but in the renaissance they started to and it changed the art world. We are trying to be like them and create a sense of value in our work.

12. Works Cited

Works Cited

Esaak, Shelley. “Value.” Art History. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. <>.

N.d. Photograph. TGJ4M-BIkB. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. <>.

Romeo and Juliet Essay Final Reflection

1. Final Annotated Copy

2. Questions

a. Were you able to use the writing process (different due dates for different parts of the essay leading up to the final) to your advantage? In other words, did the different smaller assignments help you organize your writing and turn in a better final draft? Why or why not?

I think that the different smaller assignments helped me to organise my writing and turn it in to a final draft.

One reason is because we have time to fix everything after we have gotten feedback either from our peers or our teacher. For example, every stage we got some feedback. In the first stage, which was to make an essay outline, Mr. Johnson gave us individual feedback on what we could fix or change. Also our rough drafts were checked by two different peers in our group. This helped me make my writing become better because in a way, it was being filtered through many checks.

Another reason why different smaller assignments helped me to organise my writing and turn it in to a final draft is because we didn’t have to do the whole thing at once and we had time to fix it. This can be helpful for students who are slow writers or students who like  to think before they write. Because it is in different pieces, these students, like myself, can manage their time more efficiently.

b. Did you find the peer editing process valuable? Why or why not?

I found the peer editing process valuable because not only can we see the opinions of the teachers on our essay, but we can see the opinions of our peers as well. Because we don’t get the feedback from the teacher for the rough drafts and only for the outlines, I think this is better than not getting it checked by anyone and just writing the final essay. Also when I was thinking that my peer feedback could change or improve my group’s essay I worked hard when I was checking my peers’ essays and so did my group members.

c. How will you utilize the specific feedback given to you to improve your writing next time?

There is a lot of specific feedback that I can utilise to improve my writing next time.

One is to make smoother or better transitions. When I saw this comment on managebac, I knew this was very true because when I was writing my essay, I had problems and confusions to where to put the transition or what words to use to make my essay look good. For example, on the conclusion I took a lot of time choosing the word Hence, but I knew it wasn’t a really good choice because it was a “weak” word.

Another specific feedback that I can utilise is making sure that there are not a lot of grammar or punctuation errors. Since I was little I had a lot of problem with grammar and punctuation. I have since improved a lot from then  but I think some times I make little mistakes. I made some punctuation and grammar errors and the next time I fix an essay or this essay I will be making note of this.

Magellan Reading Questions

1. Journal

2. Questions and Answers on WordPress


Ferdinand Magellan – Discovering the Pacific Ocean

Worksheet on extracts from “First Voyage Around the World”

Section One: Language Development:  While reading, record any words you don’t already know.  When you have finished reading, choose seven of those words, define them, and record the sentence from which they came.

Word Definition Sentence from the Text
Debouched To come out from a little space in to a large area. “Wednesday, 28 November 1520, we debouched from that strait, engulfing ourselves in the Pacific Sea” (Pigafetta 380).
Flanks Right and left side of someone or something “When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries, two divisions on our flanks and the other on our front” (Pigafetta 380).
Crossbowmen A person who uses a crossbow, which is a type of bow and arrow device from the medieval period. “The musketeers and crossbowmen shot from a distance for abut a half-hour, but uselessly; for the shots only passed through the shields which were made of thin wood and the arms [of the bearers] (Pigafetta 381).
Cease To come to an end of something. “The captain cried to them, ‘Cease firing! Cease firing!’ but his order was not at all heeded” (Pigafetta 381).
Latter Near the end of something and farther from the start. “The natives shot only at our legs, for the latter were bare; and so many were the spears and stones that they hurled at us that we could offer no resistance” (Pigafetta 381).
Effaced To erase someone or something. “I hope through the efforts of your most illustrious Lordship that the fame of so noble a captain will not become effaced in our times” (Pigafetta 382).
Adversity A hard or troubling situation. “Among the other virtues which he possessed, he was more constant than ever anyone else in the greatest of adversity” (Pigafetta 382).


Section Two: Comprehension Check:  Complete the following questions – you do not have to use complete sentences.  You may complete this in bullet format.



1 Why and where was Magellan exploring?
Answer Why?

  • Sent by the kind of Spain to explore.


  • East Indies
2 What were the sailors eating during their time in the Pacific Ocean?
  • Powder of Biscuits with worms
  • Putrid yellow water
  • Hard ox-hides
3 Why did nineteen men die during the voyage?
  • Gums of the teeth swelled
4 Why didn’t the crew die of hunger according to the writer?
  • Teeth swelled
  • Ability of eating gone
5 How many men were on each side of the battle described in the extract?
Answer Natives

  • Three divisions with more than 1,400 people


  • 49 people in two divisions
6 What weapons were the sailors using?
  • Muskets
  • Crossbows
  • Pointed stakes
  • Fire
7 What weapons were the natives using?
  • Arrows
  • Bamboo spears
8 How exactly was Magellan killed?
  • Wounded on left leg
  • Fell face forward
  • Killed with iron and bamboo spears
9 What was Magellan checking after he was wounded?
  • Whether the crew were all on boats
10 What were the most important ‘virtues’ that Magellan showed?
  • More constant than anyone else
  • Endured hunger better than anyone
  • Accurately understand sea charts and navigation
  • No one had so much natural talent
  • Boldness to learn how to circumnavigate the world


Section Three:  Source Analysis: Critical Thinking Exercises:  From this source, we can learn many things about the voyage of Magellan; however, we must read the source ‘critically’.  In other words, do not just believe everything that you are reading, but think about it and decide how reliable the information is, and what exactly we can learn from the source. 

Fill in the following table by putting an X in the most relevant box related to the source. 

Topic The reason for and purpose of voyage The conditions in which the sailors lived and worked The attitude of the explorers toward the natives The attitude of the natives toward the explorers The character of Magellan
There is plenty of information about this in the source



There is some information about this, but we must be careful



This is no really mentioned in the source, but we can make some inferences from the information provided


We can’t learn anything about this from the source.


Section Four: Extension Work: Clearly, this source is a biased account of Magellan’s adventures; written by the navigator of the ship (nobody makes themselves sound bad, right?).  Select one quote from the text that you think is a) definitely valid, b) useful information but questionable, and c) clearly exaggerated.  Give a brief explanation so to why you chose each quotation. 




Definitely a valid as a source for History “Nineteen men died from that sickness, and the giant together with an Indian from the country of Verzin” (Pigafetta 380). This is valid and as a source for history because there is no reason why Pigafetta would be biased about the point that this many people are dead. Since he is recording it for the king, he has to make it as accurate as possible.
Useful information, but of questionable validity “When we reached land, those men had formed in three divisions to the number of more than 1,500 persons” (Pigafetta 380). Because they were getting attacked at the spur of the moment, it might have seen that there were a lot of people and it is a estimate. It is useful information that there were a lot of people, but we can’t say that it was the exact estimate that Pigafetta made.
Clearly exaggerated “And that this was the truth was seen openly, for no other had had so much natural talent nor the boldness to learn how to circumnavigate the world, as he had almost done” (Pigafetta 382). This is probably biased because there were a lot of talented people and because he was their leader, Pigafetta probably felt very loyal to Magellan.


3. Questions and Answers on Microsoft Word

3) Christopher Columbus Reading Questions

1. Christopher columbus Journal

2. Christopher Columbus Reading Questions (WordPress)

Christopher Columbus

Revealing the Existence of the Americas to Europe

Vocabulary Development:

As you read the text, record five words you do not understand.  Below, write the word, the definition that goes along with it, and the sentence it was used with in the text. 

Word Definition Sentence from the Text
Shoals Shoals are land under the water that is near the surface. “We saw petrels, and a green reed close to the ship, and then a big green fish of a kind which does not stray far from the shoals.
Knots A knot is a type of measurement that is used to measure the speed of ships that translated to feet is 6076 ft per hour. “I resumed our original course westward, sailing at about nine knots.”
Dignified Dignified is an adjective to describe a person or a group that is thoughtful and full of grace and they seem like they deserve respect. “They are all the same size, of good stature, dignified and well formed.”
Haphazardly This is being all over the place and not being organized or having a plan. “They are built in the shape of a campaign tent, very large, and arranged not in streets but haphazardly, like tents in an army encampment.”
Leagues A league is a measurement or an unit that used to measure distance in Europe but it is not an official measurement now. The league is the distance that a human can walk in an hour. “The two men I sent inland to explore came back last night and told me they had gone twelve leagues when they reached a village of fifty houses.”


Comprehension Questions

Answer the following questions below.  You do not have to answer these in complete sentences; bullet format is fine.

Question Answer
1 Where was Columbus heading?
  • India (Columbus says “Indies”)
2 What signs did they have on October 11 that they were nearing land? Santa María (Ship Columbus was on):
  • Petrels
  • Green Reed
  • Green Fish that lives only near Shoals.


  • Cane and Stick
  • Peace of wood works with an iron tool
  • Piece of a cane
  • Plant that grows on land
  • Little board


  • Thorn branch with red fruits; newly cut

3What did Columbus promise the first man to see land?

  • Silk Doublet
  • 10,000 maravedis from the Majesties

4Which of Columbus’ ships spotted land first?

  • Santa María: Columbus Guessed land.
  • Pinta: because it was fast sighted land.

5What flags or banners did the crew carry onto the island first?

  • Christopher Columbus: Royal Standard
  • Captains: Banner with the Green Cross that the ships carry; with letters F and Y surmounted by crown.

6What did the Europeans give the islanders?

  • Red bonnets
  • Glass beads
  • Things of small value

7Describe the physical appearance of the men and women on the island.

  • Appear to be poor
  • Naked
  • All very young
  • Looked strong; well built
  • Thick hair like horses
  • Hair is short; some strands of hair hanging
  • Paint themselves different colors
  • Very broad
  • Wide foreheads
  • Big eyes

8Why did Columbus think the islanders were intelligent?

  • People from mainland come to take them as prisoners
  • Must be good servants
  • Quickly repeats everything said

9How many islanders did he want to take with him?  Why?How many?


  • Take six of them


  • Teach them Religion (Christianity)
  • Show them to the Majesties
  • Teach them Spanish

10How did the islanders travel out to the ship?

  • Made a long boat
  • Made of Tree Trunk
  • Biggest fit 40-50 people
  • Smallest fit one
  • Row with paddles

11What did the island look like geographically?

  • Large and flat
  • Lake in middle
  • No mountains

12What kind of animals did Columbus’ men see on the island?

  • Fish with different vibrant colors
  • Whales
  • On land only parrots and lizards
  • A big Snake
  • Birds
  • Tamed Dogs

13What was the weather like on the island?

  • Nights are neither hot or cold
  • Other islands are hot; flat
  • This island warm wind

14On November 6th, what kind of place did the Europeans find?

  • Village of fifty houses
  • Thousand inhabitants in village
  • Houses are visible
  • Land is very fertile

15What did the islander women do to the Europeans?  Why?What?

  • Kissed their hand and feet


  • To see if they were human
  • To see if they were real


Analysis Questions

Answer the following questions using complete sentences.  Use specific examples from the text.  This is practice for your coming summative task. 

Question Your Analysis
1 What evidence is there that Columbus was very religious? There are several evidences shown in the text that Columbus is religious. One example can be seen where he encourages his crew who were complaining how long the distance was. “I also told them that is was useless to complain; having set out for the Indies I shall continue this voyage until with God’s grace, I reach them”  (Columbus 321). This sentence shows that he will take god’s grace with him and one of the reasons why he was going to the indies without running out of strength was because of God and Religion.Another Example of Columbus being very religious can be depicted in this part of the journal, “I talked to the men about the grace which God had shown us by bringing us in safety, with fair winds and no obstacles, and by comforting us with sings which were more plentiful everyday” (Columbus 321). This was written in the part where the crew was all having their ‘Salve Regina’, which is a Christian Hymn. This quote tells us that Columbus us thankful for god for not giving them any problems and that he encouraged others to think that way as well during the religious singing of the hymn.Adding on, one other way that Columbus can be seen as religious is when he thinks of taking back some of the native people back to the majesty. “With God’s will, I will take six of them with me for Your Majesties when I leave this place, so that they may learn Spanish” (Columbus 323). This shows that he believes that it is God’s Will that he take back people from the islands which shows that some part of this thought was effected by the thought of religion and god. 

A sentence before the given quote also helps us detect that Christopher Columbus was religious. “I believe they would readily become Christians; it appeared to me that they have no religion” (Columbus 323). Some characteristics of religious people are that they want to spread their religion to different lands and people. Columbus shows this by thinking about teaching the Natives Christian to spread it.


Following were the reasons and examples why Columbus is religious.

2 What kind of leader does Columbus seem to be? There are a lot of characteristics that a leader should have. They should be courageous, intelligent, strong etc. What kind of leader is Columbus? According to the journal I would describe him to be an encouraging, intelligent, and sly leader.The first kind of leader Columbus was is an encouraging leader. This can be seen in various parts of the text. “I encouraged them as best I could, trying to raise their hopes of benefits they might gain from it” (Columbus 321). In this passage “they” are the crew. Columbus can be seen cheering the crew up who are giving up on actually making it to the Indies. He is a very positive and encouraging leader, which I believe is one of the reasons why they came to land fairly quickly.The second kind of leader Columbus was is an intelligent leader. When Columbus was outside at night he could see some light, which identified that there was land close by. “I was on the poop deck at then o’clock in the evening when I saw a light. It was so indistinct that I could not be sure it was land… the light appeared once or twice more, like a wax candle rising and falling…I was sure we were close to a landfall” (Columbus 322). A few paragraph after this, he states that he found land for sure. This identifies that Columbus is a very good observer and is very intelligent because his own eyes were better than some of the ships that he had or the crewmembers. 

The final kind of leader Columbus was is a sly leader. Leader’s characteristics don’t always have to be good because some do benefit that person. Columbus being sly can be shown when he goes to the Natives and gives them things and seems kind but he things about enslaving them and taking them back to Spain. “…I gave some of them red bonnets and glass beads which they hung around their necks, and many other things of small value, at which they were so delighted and eager to please us that we could not believe it… They must be very good servants, and intelligent… With God’s will, I will take six of them with me for Your Majesties when I leave this place, so that they may learn Spanish” (Columbus 322-323) With this we can analyze further that he looked to be nice to the Natives but he was actually very sly and thinking of what he should do with their intelligence.


These were some of the types of leaders Columbus was.

3 How did they ‘take possession’ of the land they first found? Columbus’s Crew was delighted to have reached the “Indies” and since it was their first land, they did a lot of things to prove that the land was “their” possession.Firstly, in the journal, Columbus writes that he brought flags from the of the royal standard and other flags of his country and his majesty. “I tool the royal standard, and the captains each took a banner with the Green Cross which each of my ships carries as a device, with the letters F and Y, surmounted by a crown, at each end of the cross” (Columbus 322).  This shows that Columbus tries to ‘take possession’ of the island by using something called symbolism, in this case the type of symbolism is the flags and banners that he brought. By bringing it and putting it on the island one will feel satisfied and if others come along they can say that they ‘own’ the island.There is one other way that Columbus and his crew took possession of the land they first found. “I called to the two captains to jump ashore with the rest, who included Rodrigo de Escobedo, secretary of the fleet, and Rodrigo Sánchez de Segovia, asking them to bear solemn witness that in the presence of them all I was taking possession of this island for their Lord and Lady the King and Queen, and I made the necessary declarations which are set down at greater length in the written testimonies” (Columbus 322). In this sentence we can see that did Columbus use symbolism by using the banners, he created witnesses and written proof that he was the one that gained the island and that this island was for the Majesty. 

These were two ways that Columbus tried to ‘take possession’ of the first island.

4 What was Columbus’ main intention with the islanders who he (they) met? The main intention with the islanders who he (they) met was to trade with the islanders. One must remember that the main reasons that Columbus wanted to reach the Indies to get goods and trade. This can be seen in various parts of Columbus’ journal.The first place where this can be seen is when he is communicating with the islanders. “I kept my eyes open and tried to find out if there was any gold… I gathered from their signs that if one goes south, or around the south side of the island, there is a king with great jars full of it… I tried to persuade them to go there, but I saw that the idea was not to their liking” (Columbus 323-324).  In this we can see that Columbus wants to get gold from the island, which indicates that gold is one of the reasons that he came to the islands.The trading comes in after Columbus thinks about gold. “But they will give whatever they have for anything one gives them; they even bargained for pieces of broken plate and broken glasses. I saw them take three Portuguese ceotís, the equivalent of one Castilian blanca, for sixteen balls of cotton…” (Columbus 324). One can infer that this piece of text indicates that Columbus was trading with the islanders, although it might have not been fair. Which then again comes to the main reason that Columbus came to the islands, to trade and to gain different goods.
5 What were Columbus’ first impressions of the character of the islanders? (See the October 11 entry) Since it was the first time that Columbus was visiting the island he must have had some first impressions of the character of the islanders. Some of these are listed in his journal.One thing that he must have thought about was how to treat these islanders depending on their character. “I could see that they were people who would be more easily converted to our Holy Faith by love than by coercion and wishing them to look in us with friendship I gave some of them… many other things of small values” (Columbus 322). In this passage he thinks that the islanders would not fall for violence or force and will be better handled and persuaded if he treats them better and with love. One can infer that one of Columbus’ first impressions of the islanders was that they needed love more than to be treated with force.There is another point that Columbus mentioned as well. “…they appeared to me to be a very poor people in all respects… they go about as naked as the day they were born…” (Columbus 323) Columbus is trying to say that one of his first impressions of the islanders was that they were poor just because unlike him and his crew, they weren’t wearing any clothes. This identifies that Columbus thought that the islanders were lower of power because he was ‘richer’ than them.
6 In the journal entry for October 14th, what do you think Columbus is most interested in? In the journal entry for October 14th, Columbus does a lot of things that show or hint what Columbus is interested in.One thing that he was interested in is a jewel, most specifically gold. “I could not swear to this, and the gold they wear hanging from their noses is also from the island…” (Columbus 324). From this one can see that even though he is travelling, he is still thinking of ways that he could obtain the gold that the islanders had.If gold was the side of what he was interested about, this was the one that he was most interested about. “I saw them take three Portuguese ceotís, the equivalent of one Castilian blanca, for sixteen balls of cotton which must have contained more than an arroba of thread. I had forbidden anyone to take this, except that I had given order to take it all for Your Majesties…” (Columbus 324). In this we can see that because he had obtained great amounts of cotton, he was interested and he wanted to take it to the Majesty to get praised. 

Overall, you can say that the things that Columbus was most interested in were cotton and gold.

7 What particularly impresses Columbus about the islands? There were a lot of things that impressed Columbus about the islands. They were mostly about the nature.One example can be seen when he lands on a new island. “This island is large and very flat, with green trees and plenty of water… and everything is green and a delight to the eye” (Columbus 324). From this we can see that Columbus appreciates the green nature of the islands and it impresses him a lot because he describes the island very thoroughly.Another example can be seen about the animals. “The fish here show amazing differences from our own. Some are like cocks, with the handsomest colouring in the world… No man could look at them without amazement and delight, the colors are so beautiful” (Columbus 324). This means that because he doesn’t have amazing fish in his own country, he is fascinated and impressed with the animals. 

Overall, I can depict that Columbus is impressed with things that are not usually found in in his home country.

8 How are the Europeans treated by the islanders? (November 6) In some of the previous questions, I have talked about how the Europeans treated the islanders. However, I have never talked about the islanders treating the Europeans.If the Europeans treated the islander with a motive, the islanders were kind and wanted the Europeans to feel welcomed. “They were given food… The Indian who was with my men told them about our way of life, saying that we were good people” (Columbus 326). In this one can infer that the islanders thought of the Europeans as good people since there were given food and words of hospitality.Another way that the islanders treated the Europeans was that they were treated like superior beings. “The people kept touching them and kissing their hands and feet in amazement, thinking they had come from Heaven…” (Columbus 326) In this sentence we can infer that by the actions of the islanders that they think of Europeans as higher than them because you wouldn’t kiss the feet or hands of a person who were lower or of the same level as you are.



Answer the following questions in one paragraph by using at least three quotations from the text.  Highlight each quotation in your answer so I can easily identify it.  

What was Columbus’ attitude toward the islanders?  In other word: How exactly did Columbus view the islanders?  Did they impress him?  Does he respect them?  Is the critical of them?  What are his motives for being there?
 Columbus perceived the Native Americans by…. Columbus had a lot of thought on the Native Americans. He had a lot of different opinions on the Native Americans but they all lead up to similar themes. First of all, let us look at the first example in Columbus’ journal. “However, they appeared to me to be a very poor people in all respects. “…They appeared to me to be a very poor people in all respects… they go about as naked as the day they were born…” (Columbus 323). In this clip of the journal one can say that Columbus thought of the Native Americans as lesser beings just because they had a tradition of not wearing clothes. This was one of the first impressions that Columbus had about the Native Americans. Another example can be seen when the Native Americans and Columbus’ crew are talking to each other. “They must be good servants, and intelligent, for I can see that they quickly repeat everything said to them… I will take six of them with me for Your Majesties when I leave this place…” (Columbus 323). One can depict that the language and the tone of writing Columbus is using is not the usual tone that he uses for humans. It is as if he is writing about how to train a slave or a lesser being. Even though they are smart, these are the only thoughts that Columbus thinks about. We can also see that his true motives are to take things and trade things on the island. One last example of how Columbus perceived the Native Americans can be seen when they are trading with each other, “…exchanging them for such objects as glass beads and hawk bells. They took anything and gave willingly whatever they had” (Columbus 322). This does not show directly how Columbus thought about the Native Americans trading for small things, however we can tell through his actions. He did not trade for things of the same value and left the Native Americans to trade for small things.Overall, I think that Columbus thought of the Native Americans as poor and even though they were smart that didn’t change is motive or first impressions of them.



3. Christopher columbus Reading Questions (Crocodoc/ Microsoft Word)

2) Elements of Mystery Fiction 2

I. Questions

1. What does Tapply say are the six main elements of mystery fiction? Address each one separately, and give a thorough explanation for each. 

a) The puzzle

The puzzle is the question that fuels the mystery and the mystery revolves around the puzzle. The broad question that the puzzle is is “who did it?”. Some specific questions could be “who stole the diamond?” or “Who murdered him?”.

b) Detection

Detection is almost all of the body of the mystery fiction. This is when someone or a group of people are trying to detect and solve the puzzle by gathering different clues and witnesses. The story resolves when the detection ends and the puzzle is solved.

c) The sleuth as the Hero

The sleuth is the detective or the Hero/Heroine who saves the day by detecting the different clues to piece them up to solve the puzzle. The sleuth has a lot of good characteristics such as intelligence, charm, strength or all of these characteristics. The sleuth is usually the protagonist of the story.

d) The worthy Villain

The villain is the antagonist of the story who tries to sneak out from the sleuth’s radar. The villain is not dumb but is as intelligent as the sleuth creating false traps or holes to get away with a murder, a robbery, etc.

e) Fair Play

Fair play is an important part of a mystery and a reader might not enjoy a mystery fiction without fair play. Fair play is a characteristic where in the book the clues that are available to the sleuth is available to the reader so the reader can try to solve the crime with the sleuth. This prevents the reader from being board.

f) Realism and Logic

Realism and Logic is another important part of mystery fiction. The whole point of mystery fiction is for the hole thing to fit in to the puzzle. The story has to seem real because if it doesn’t the readers can not be one with the book and fall in to it as easily.

2. What does it mean to make the “reader as a participant” in a mystery? Which author was the first to do this? 

To take the “reader as a participant” in a mystery means that the author gives certain amount of information so that the reader can feel like he or she is exactly in the book. This can be very hard for the authors because they have to give what the readers want. The readers want the clues that the sleuth has so that they can also try to solve the mystery themselves. This is something called fair play. However, the readers don’t want to be treated like babies and doesn’t want the author or the sleuth to lead them to every single step so that they don’t have a chance of solving the problem.

In fair play, it also means fair play between the readers and the detective. If the author gives more information to the readers or vise versa it would mean that one side wouldn’t be able to solve the case easier than the other.

3. One of the keys to good creative writing, is to “show, don’t tell.” What does this mean? Give an original example of what “show, don’t tell” means, either in a book you’ve read, or in real life.

One of the keys to good creative writing, which is to “show, don’t tell” means for the author to not describe everything. In real life no narrator tells you what the person is thinking, you have to notice yourself or make an assumption. This is what “show, don’t tell” means. Some might think that this isn’t fair but this makes the readers have more fun. Fair play also pitches in to this. If the narrator tells you information, obviously the sleuth doesn’t know it which means that fair play has been violated. The author tries his or her best to describe every motion that the person is making so that you can depict it and find out yourself.

An example of this can be in real life. For example, once my friend was sad and when I asked if something was wrong, she said no. I could tell something was wrong because she was trying hard to fake smile and her eyes were damp.


II. Works Cited

Works Cited

Tapply, William G. The Elements of Mystery Fiction: Writing a Modern Whodunit. Scottsdale, AZ: Poisoned Pen, 2004. Print.

1) Anatomy of a Mystery and Elements of Mystery Fiction 1

I. Questions


1. What defines a mystery? What constitutes a mystery book? 

A mystery is a type of genre in which the plot includes some kind of crime. The constitutions of the mystery book, specifically the crime is the usual, who did it. Some specific examples of this question can be “who stole it?” or “who murdered him?”
2. Give a brief history of the mystery genre to include the contributions of: Edgar Allen Poe, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, and Agatha Christie. Be sure to describe how each one of these people has shaped/changed the genre of mystery. (When a name of an author is mentioned, it is bolded)


Mystery Fiction was first written by the writer and poet, Edgar Allen Poe, in 1841. Edgar Allen Poe had his short story “The Murders in the Rue Morge.” In this story one can see that it is a typical ‘who did it’ type of story including a smart and intelligent detective C. Auguste Dupin. There were a lot of Murder literature in the past. However, no one attempted to make a story about someone solving that problem.

Edgar Allen Poe was the first one to write in the Mystery Genre but Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was the one who made it immensely popular in 1891. Doyle had his own detective which was Sherlock Holmes. Holmes was a very intelligent detective like Poe’s Dupin. However, one thing that was different from Poe’s story was that Holmes had a partner who was Dr. Watson. Dr. Watson was not a genius like Holmes and is like the readers. This creates some similarities between the character and the reader which makes it more interesting for the reader to read.

97l/29/huty/7633/12However, in both Dyles and Poe’s books the readers couldn’t follow Dupin and Holmes because they would not tell the readers about some of the clues or information and the reader would feel blown away when the Detective reveals the truth of the crime. Agatha Christie was the one who changed this for the readers. Agatha Christie included an element called fair play in the mystery world which means that the reader has the same amount of clues and information as the detective. If there was one twist to these stories was the the plots were bizarre and the characters did not resembled real humans. The age of fair play was known as “The classical Age” in the world of Mystery Fiction.

After that is when Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler come in. They are the American writers who created the genre of “hard-boiled” mysteries. These were almost the opposite of the stories from the classical Age dealing with characters that actual humans might resemble topics that were true to the world. One can say that “hard boiled” mysteries were more gruesome than the stories that cam in the classical age.


3. Give a small description of the eight different sub-genres of mystery (The Detective Story, The Private Eye Story, The Hard-boiled Detective Story, The Crime Story, Psychological Suspense Story ,The Thriller Story, The Cozy Story. 

a) The detective Story: Edgar Allen Poe was the first one who started the detective Story sub genre. This is the sub genre that most people consider the “main” genre of a mystery. The detective Stories mostly include crime and the usual revealing of the culprit who was not thought of to be the culprit. It also includes fake clues and innocent people who are faulted. Some famous detectives from this genre is Miss. Marple, a detective by Agatha Christie and C/ Auguste Dupin of Edgar Allen Poe.

b) The Private Eye Story: The private eye story is nearly identical to the detective story. However, it includes a private investigator. This genre also deals with the “who done its”, crime, and murder.

c) The Hard-boiled Detective Story: The hard-boiled detective story came from America in the 20th century. Some famous authors of this genre is Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler. This does not deal with detectives and deals with the police. This genre is mostly for men because it includes bad language and much violence and might be uncomfortable to read.

d) The Crime Story: This genre is very hard to define because there is a line between when a crime story becomes a mystery and when it isn’t included as a mystery. When the story is from the criminals point of view, it is considered not a mystery because you already know who the criminal is. A important point of the crime story is that they don’t exactly have the happiest of endings.

e) Psychological Suspense Story: psychological suspense causes chills when you are reading that particular story. The book is filled of fear and you as the plot develops the tension created becomes higher and higher. There is not a lot of Detecting and some might think that they are closer to the genre of horror than that of a mystery.

f) The Thriller Story: The thriller story is depicted differently in different countries. However, the main idea is that the story is very fast paced and very active which includes some kind of adventure. You can say that they are not really detectives and are Heroes and Heroines.

g) The Cozy Story: The Cozy story is the exact opposite of the Hard-boiled stories. This is more for the females because they don’t actually describe the moment of the murder or of violence strongly and it usually happens behind the scenes. A famous cozy writer is Agatha Christie.
4. Identify which genre you want to read, and include a description as to why.

If I was to pick which genre I would read, I would pick the cozy story or psychological suspense. First of all, I would pick the cozy story because I don’t like reading uncomfortable or violent things and if they had to happen I would like them to happen off camera so I don’t read it at the spot. cozy books seem to work for me because they seem to fit the female readers and seem to match their point of view. The second genre I chose was the psychological suspense because I like horror stories and I like getting chills. The reason why I like horror is because there is a major twist at the climax and it is interesting to read up until that point.

II. Works Cited

Works Cited

“Anatomy of a Mystery.” N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Biography. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Mhpbooks. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <>.

N.d. Photograph. Wikimedia. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <>.

Tapply, William G. The Elements of Mystery Fiction: Writing a Modern Whodunit. Scottsdale, AZ: Poisoned Pen, 2004. N. pag. Print.