1) Simple machines historical Investigation

1. Brief introduction of the six simple machines

Simple machines are things that we can’t live without. What are simple machines? Well, to be specific they are tools that make our “work” easier. Now, this is not any kind of work but a special type of work. For example, a student might think that doing homework is work. They might say, “Phew we had to do so much work today.” But scientifically, is this actually “work”? Work is defined as when you move an object using force for a certain distance. Work is measured in Joules and it can be calculated by using a formula which is Distance (m) x Force (Newtons). But now that we have found out about work, let’s talk about the different simple machines that are used to make this “work” easier.

First, let us talk about the inclined plane. The inclined plane looks like the following picture.

It is a slanted plane that is used to drag things up from it. The basics of the inclined plane are that if we say that the plane is steep it means that the slope is steep as well and vise versa. The slope is measured by Rise over run (rise/run), which is basically dividing the height and the width of the triangle. The angle of incline is also noted in the picture with an oval shape with a line in the middle. This in scientific terms is called theta, which is the name for an unknown angle. The rule for the inclined plane is if theta gets bigger the slope becomes steeper and if theta gets smaller the opposite happens.

There are a lot of ways that the inclined plane is used in our everyday life. For example, the slanted floor next to the stairs for people with wheel chairs are incline planes. If the citizens with wheel chairs would go down the stairs, it would make a hard time for them. That is why people made an inclined plane so that they can go down them smoothly. Another example of an inclined plane is found when you move in to another house. The huge trucks use inclined planes to take in or out the items inside the truck so that they do not have to life them one by one.

The second simple machine that I am going to introduce is the Lever. The lever is used to lift somethingmore easier using work. A lever has three parts to it. First there is a Fulcrum,which is the support and where the lever moves. The effort force is the second, which is measured in newtons. Lastly there is something called the resistance force which is the object in which you are trying to lift. There are some specific names for the distances as well. The name from the item to the fulcrum is the resistance arm and from the effort force to the fulcrum is called the effort arm.

In the world of levers, there are three types, the first class, the second class, and the third class lever. The first class lever is the typical lever that we see everyday, for example, a seesaw. This means the there is force and an item on either side of the fulcrum. Some examples of class one levers are scissors and pliers. The second-class lever is when the effort and the item are on one side of the fulcrum but the effort force is more on the outside. Some examples of this are the wheelbarrow, which gains force. The third class lever is the opposite of the second-class lever so the item is more on the outside and they lose force, but the speed and distance are increasing. A good example of this is the tweezer. To sum it up levers are used to move items easier and this can be decided on which element you want easier, force or distance and speed.

The third simple machine that I am going to introduce is the wedge. Simply the wedge is a type of inclined plane but with more force. The wedge is used to cut, break, or keep things in place. But the pull back for the wedge is that you either need to put more force or the wedge needs to be bigger for there to be a bigger cut.

We can see a lot of wedges used today such as an axe. An axe is a sharp wedge. One can see that it is a wedge by looking at the way people use axes to cut through wood. However, The machine part of this is that there needs to be force implied. Another example of a wedge that we can see in our lives is a door holder. Sometimes doors move all about and we want to keep it still. This is when we use door wedges so that the door doesn’t move.

The fourth simple machine is the wheel and axle. To make this simple machine work you need the wheel and axle together. The smaller wheel should be in the middle of the bigger one. The thing about the wheel and axel is that as one of them moves, the big one controls the smaller one. This way you can use less force to move two different objects. A developed version of the wheel and axle is the gear. The gear is the same as the wheel except there are teeth on it.

We can see the wheel and axle in different parts of our lives. We can see them in cars and roller blades. One can see that the similarity between these two is that they are both items that move by the wheel.

The fifth simple machine is the Pulley. The pulley is similar and has evolved from the wheel and axle. A pulley helps people move things a certain distance up. There are three kinds of pulleys. First of all, there is the simple pulley that is the basics of all pulleys. This changes only the route of the power but nothing else. Second there is the movable pulley that gains force. Lastly there is the compound pulley that is the mix of the two.

There are a lot of ways that pulleys can be used. For example a flagpole is an item that uses the pulley. As you full the string, the flag that is attached goes up. Another example is a blind that works the same way as the flagpole.

The last simple machine is the screw. The screw has different parts are there are two major parts. The whole screw is called the body and the spiral part is called the thread. One can see that the nail is very similar to a spiral staircase because it keeps on going down while wrapping the nail. You can use the screw to drill things together or to keep things so that they don’t move.

Some specific examples where screws are used are that they are used to keep items together. For example, you can stick together a table with screws so that you don’t have to use glue or tape that can break easily.

This is a video to sum up the simple machines:

1. Choose one of the simple machines; complete an historic investigation of the machine

In the world today, we can see a lot of the six simple machines being used, but how about in history? I am going to talk about one simple machine that we can’t live without. It is the Inclined Plane.

Let us start with the beginning of inclined planes. A person named Archimedes in the 2nd century BC first discovered the inclined plane. Archimedes is a Mathematician and Scientist from Greece. Archimedes has discovered a lot of things such as one of the simple machines, the screw. However this screw wasn’t the screw that we know of today, it was a screw that was used to transport water. He is also immensely famous for his math. For example, he discovered Pi and he also discovered the triangle. It is no surprise that the incline plane is not one of his major discoveries. It is shown that Archimedes had planted the seed for the discovery for the incline plane and another mathematician carried it on. His name is Hero of Alexandria. Hero of Alexandria was also a mathematician like Archimedes but he was more of a Geometer. If Archimedes was the one that planted the seed it was Heron who actually watered it and developed it. It is said that Heron developed it in 1 ce. He also was from Alexandria, Egypt. This explains some of the reasons the Egyptians have used the incline plane. But in this time it is shown that a lot of scientists didn’t find that the inclined plane was a simple machine because it could be found in the natural environment and it was not something that was specifically made like the pulley.

As I mentioned the Egyptians have used the inclined plane. As one will think, the first things that people think of when they think of Egyptian history are pyramids. A lot of historians have wondered how people from such a long time ago have built the pyramid made up of 80-ton blocks with no technology like we have now. Most of the historians have turned to simple machines as their answer. Like seen above, historians predict that when the Egyptians built the pyramid they needed different planes with different slopes to build their pyramid. When they are building the bottom parts one can clearly see that they would need an incline plane with the softer slope. As you can see in the picture, as the pyramid gets higher, the slope of the incline plane becomes steeper so that they can reach to the top. The picture below is another example of how historians predict that the Egyptians built the pyramid. One can predict that the Egyptians might have used a much more long inclined plane for the higher parts if they had used the example below.

Not only have the Egyptians used the inclined plane to use build and create the Stonehenge. The Stonehenge is located in England. The Stonehenge is still a mystery today and archeologists wonder about how people from 2000BC- 3000BC have built this with absolute no technology at all. Again, they have turned to the conclusion of simple machines and one of them being the incline plane. In the book by James Easton called Conjectures on the Mysterious Monument of Ancient Art, Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain, He mentions that the people who built the Stonehenge must have used the earth has an incline plane to roll up the stone pieces to build it. With the two examples of the Pyramid and the Stonehenge we can tell that the incline plane helped people a long time right up until now.

Although the incline plane have helped us a lot throughout history, scientists and mathematicians had a lot of thoughts on whether the incline plane should be on the list with the five other simple machines. One reason why they disagreed with the incline plane being a simple machine was because one can find it easily in the natural environment such as the mountain or the hill. A man named Jordanus de Nemore wrote the first right definition and inquiry of the incline plane in the renaissance. However, no one at that time believed him. But after near the end of the sixteenth century, Galileo Galilee posted the correct solutions. Now that people had acknowledged incline planes they started using it more. We can see this by the use of canals. For people who don’t know what canals are they are basically roads on water for the boats. Incline planes were used to raise boats. In the renaissance times this was used in the Wagon of Zafosina, which is near Venice. It was not until the Industrial Revolution that the inclined plane was widely used for the canal.

In the Industrial Revolution, a lot of canals were built and one of the famous ones is the Ketley Canal which was built in 1788. This was the first inclined plane built in Britain. However this was not the first try. They have tried once on the Dulart’s Canal but it had not worked. “Our Inclined Plane answers my most sanguine expectations… we have already let down more than forty boats per day each carrying 8 tons- in average about thirty boats daily and have not yet had an accident.” This is an excerpt from a letter from William Reynolds to James Watt, a fellow engineer. One can clearly see from before, the usage of the inclined plane has changed.

If we look around, we are bound to find an inclined plane and for international students like us, we ride the airplane a lot and one everyday inclined plane in an airplane is an evacuation slide. Before I talk about the specifics I find it important that people know the exact definition of the evacuation slide. An evacuation slide is an inflatable slide that is used so that passengers can fee the aircraft in case of an emergency. The evacuation slide was first invented by Air cruisers that is a company by James Boyle. Before there were inflatable evacuation slides they used to have ones that were made out of a canvas material. A lot of aircrafts stopped using it when they realized that the crew had a hard time setting it up and they figured out it would be dangerous for the passengers if it took a long time. Because there were too many accidents, in 1965 a pioneer named Jack Grant made the first inflatable slide. Although some aircrafts use the canvas slides, about 65% use the inflatable slides.

Now that we have discussed about how the inclined plane has benefited us, but what would happen if we didn’t have inclined planes? What would change in our lives? Some might think that this would not be a big deal but without inclined planes we might not have all of the items and buildings. Some things that we might not have because of inclined plane are some famous monuments. For example, as mentioned before, the archeologists predict that the pyramid and the Stonehenge were built using inclined planes. One might think, “What importance do these monuments have? Aren’t they buildings that were built?” But this is not the right way of thinking. Pyramids and the Stonehenge are used to depict the history of the country, for the Pyramids, it is Egypt and for the Stonehenge, it is England. Using these monuments we can find out a lot of things from the past. For example, from the pyramids, we can find out that the citizens of Egypt found the kings superior and they showed their loyalty by burying them in a big monument. For the Stonehenge it was found out that it was used for a burial site. The archeologists therefore predict that even at 2000BC to 3000BC, they buried their ancestors. Like this if we didn’t have inclined planes, they would not have built the pyramid or the Stonehenge. Therefore, we might have not known the history as much as now. Also it’s not just the pyramid and the Stonehenge, there are other monuments that are made out of inclined planes. Because we have these things we can know more about the history although it was a long time ago.

Inclined planes have affected the world positively as mentioned before. However, there are not only positive ways that inclined planes have affected us. There are not a lot of manmade negative effects but there are some natural inclined planes that affect us. For example, there are landslides. Before we go in to depth, let us find out what landslides are. Landslides are a type of natural disaster when rocks mud go down a hill or a mountain. There are a lot of incidents when Landslides affected humans negatively. Usually earthquakes cause landslides. An example of a landslide that happened is a landslide in Uganda. In 2012 there was a major landslide that happened. It is shown that there might be over 70 people waiting to be rescued inside the mud. Also eighteen people were reported to be dead. Like this, landslides can create a very deadly situation.

This is a news of one landslide that happened in Washington:

From this, we can tell that inclined planes are dangerous. She mentions in the video that thankfully no one was hurt but it damaged a lot of land.

Overall, we can see that the inclined planes have a lot of history and they are very important in our life.

2) Science Investigation

Scientific Application:

1. OBJECTIVES

1a.  Define “work.”

There are a lot of definitions for “Work”. However, the work that we are talking about now means when you move something a certain distance applying force.

1b.  Describe the units of measure for work.

The unit of measurement that is used to measure work is joules. However, when you write it in a form of an equation, you can write J to abbreviate it.

1c.  Use force and distance measurements to calculate work.

As I mentioned before, work’s definition is when you move an item a certain distance applying force. That is why there is an equation to measure all of this, which is:

D (Distance in meters) x F (Newtons)= J (Joules)

2. INTRODUCTION

To most people, work is the physical or mental effort it takes to get something done.  If you ask a scientist, work takes a little more time to explain.  In this lesson, you will learn and use scientific definition of work and learn how to calculate work.

You will make a number of measurements to use in calculating work.  Calculating is important in science.  This lesson will require you to use your math skills.  Good science combines facts and figures.  Mathematics is a great tool of science because it helps to describe how things behave and it helps scientists predict how some objects or processes will behave in the future.  Italian astronomer Galileo and English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton were among the first to realize the combined power of math and science.

In this lesson you will learn how forces do work and how to calculate the work done by forces.

3.  THE MEANING OF WORK

3a.  Discuss the meaning of the word work with your classmates, AND list examples of work being done.

We all found out in the previous section that work was when an item is moved a certain distance whilst applying force to it. We decided that some examples of work being done are:

–       Pulling a Sled up a hill for 5m

–       Pushing a barrel up an inclined plane that is 1 m long

–       Pushing a box for 3 meters

–       Pulling a Broken car up a hill that is 100m

3c.  After reading, review your examples of work and determine of they match the scientific meaning of work.

–       Pulling a Sled up a hill for 5m: This matches the scientific definition of work because you are pulling a sled for a certain distance using force.

–       Pushing a barrel up an inclined plane that is 1 m long: This is right because a barrel requires force to push and you are moving it for 1 m

–       Pushing a box for 3 meters: This is work because even though it is not going up a incline like the others, but it is moving a certain distance with force applied.

–       Pulling a Broken car up a hill that is 100m: The item that is moving is different because it has wheels but this is still work because it is moving a distance with force.

3d.  Write how to calculate a value for work and explain the units of measure for work.

As we found out in the previous questions work is calculated by first finding out the effort distance and the effort force. You calculate the value for work by putting your numbers in this equation:

D (Distance in meters) x F (Newtons)= J (Joules)

As you can see there is something called J which is an abbreviation for Joules. Joules is the term to measure work.

3e.  Work out this problem below, AND be sure to show your work.

Q: Alice pulls a sled with a force of 12 N.  She pulls the sled through a distance of 5m.  How much work does Alice do on the sled?

A: 12N x 5m= 60 J

4.  HOMEWORK

4a.  What force are you working against when you lift a back pack?

The force that you are working against when you lift a backpack is called gravity. Gravity is something that humans cannot live without. Gravity is the force from the center of the earth that pulls everything to the ground. That is why when you drop something it doesn’t float in the air and it falls down. It’s the same for this situation. Gravity is pulling your backpack down and you are trying to work against it.

4b.  In which of the following cases is work, as defined by scientists, being done?

i.  Someone tries to move a piano, but the piano won’t move.

ii.  A truck is pulling a car slowly along a street.

iii.  A student is studying for a mathematics exam.

iv.  A student is pushing a grocery cart around a store.

v.  Another student is standing in line at the grocery store holding a 12-N bag of potatoes.

vi.  A student pushes against the school building.

4c.  If you lift a bag that weighs 15 N a distance of 2 m, how much work have you done?

15N x 2m= 30J; 30 Joules

4d.  If a cement block that weighs 50 N must be raised to a height of 5 m, how much work must be done on the block?

50N x 5m= 250J; 250 Joules

5.  Summary Video

Khan Academy, Introduction to Work and Energy

6.  BIBLIOGRAPHY

Energy, Machines, and Motion. Burlington, NC: Carolina Biological Supply, 2006. Print.

1.  OBJECTIVES

1a. Learn how an inclined plane works.

1b. Compare the work done in pulling an object up an incline with the work done in lifting the object straight up in the air.

http://halimk.iics-k12.com/category/2-science-investigation/

2. Purpose

Research Question: How does the angle of incline affect the amount of work?

What We Will Find Out: In this experiment we will measure the angle of incline and see how the amount of work in joules changes according to it. We will do this by pulling an item according to that angle with a spring scale to check this.

Hypothesis and explanation: If the angle of incline increases then the amount of work will stay the same because instead of the slope increasing, the effort distance will decrease. This cancels out any increases or decreases.

3. Variables

Independent variable: The angle of incline

Dependent Variable: amount of work (joules)

Controlled Variables:

– The item that is used.

– The inclined plane that is used.

– The vertical height.

– The system that is used to measure the rise run (cm).

– The system used to measure effort distance (m)

4. Method

Materials:

– Inclined plane

– Spring scale (newtons)

– Filled water bottle

– 5 Books

– Meter stick

-Post it

Instructions:

1. Before you start the experiment, you should first make the table you will record the results in. First create 7 horizontal cells and 7 vertical cells. Now fill the first row with Trials, Rise, run, slope, effort Distance (m), Force (newtons), and Work (joules) respectively.

2. Now on the column of the trials name each of them 1st trial, 2nd trial… all the way to 6th trial.

3. Get out the materials (Inclined plane, spring scale, filled water bottle, books, post it, and meter stick)

4. First set the five books on top of each other and mark the point when the rise is 20cm.

5. Attach the spring scale with the water bottle and pull upwards so that the bottom of the water bottle reaches the 20cm mark.

6. Record the Rise (cm), run (cm), effort distance, and the force (newtons).

7. Now put the inclined plane on the books and make the slope gentle. When placing the inclined plane, remember that this is going to be your most gentle slope.

8. Mark the part of the inclined plane where the 20cm of the rise meets up with a post it.

9. Attach the spring scale with the water bottle and pull it up the inclined plane steadily until the point where the post it is.

10. Record the Rise (cm), run (cm), effort distance, and the force (newtons).

11. Make the inclined plane steeper than before but not quite because it is your second gentlest slope.

12. Mark the part of the inclined plane where the 20cm of the rise meets up with a post it.

13. Attach the spring scale with the water bottle and pull it up the inclined plane steadily until the point where the post it is.

14. Record the Rise (cm), run (cm), effort distance, and the force (newtons).

15. Move the inclined plane slightly up then it was before. (This is the third gentlest slope)

16. Mark the part of the inclined plane where the 20cm of the rise meets up with a post it.

17. Attach the spring scale with the water bottle and pull it up the inclined plane steadily until the point where the post it is.

18. Record the Rise (cm), run (cm), effort distance, and the force (newtons).

19. Move the inclined plane up a little more so that there is room for one more experiment after.

20. Mark the part of the inclined plane where the 20cm of the rise meets up with a post it.

21. Attach the spring scale with the water bottle and pull it up the inclined plane steadily until the point where the post it is.

22. Record the Rise (cm), run (cm), effort distance, and the force (newtons).

23. Move the inclined plane up more; this is going to be the second steepest slope after the one pulling straight up.

24. Mark the part of the inclined plane where the 20cm of the rise meets up with a post it.

25. Attach the spring scale with the water bottle and pull it up the inclined plane steadily until the point where the post it is.

26. Record the Rise (cm), run (cm), effort distance, and the force (newtons).

27. Now that the experiment is finished calculate the Slope and record it on the table.

28. Now that the slope is calculated let us calculate the Work (joules) by using the equation: D (m) X F (Newtons)= Work (joules); record the data.

29. Now that the table is finished, we have to make the graph. Open excel and post in the first column the data for the slope and in the other the data for the work (joules). Highlight it all and click on “Charts”-“Scatter”. Now that the scatter plot is formed, we have to make the line of best fit that can be made by going in to “Charts”-“Chart Layout”- “Trend line”- “Linear trend line”. For an addition I decided to make an equation to go with the trend line. To make an equation, go to “Trend line”-“Trend line options”-“Display equation on chart”.

Photos of experiment:

Data Collection and Data Processing:

a) Table

 Trials Rise (cm) Run (cm) Slope Effort Distance (m) Force (newtons) Work (joules) 1st 20 0 Undefined 0.2 6 1.20 2nd 20 72 0.28 0.73 3 2.19 3rd 20 62 0.32 0.64 3.5 2.24 4th 20 52 0.38 0.54 3.5 1.89 5th 20 45 0.44 0.47 4 1.88 6th 20 42 0.48 0.46 4 1.84

b) Graph

***Note that one point could not be plotted on the graph because the slope was undefined.

c) Analysis and Explanation of graph and table

First of all, in the table, you can see a lot of quantitative data. One can say that the data is very well organized and they are easy to look at to find patterns between the numbers. For example we can see in the rise (cm) column, the rise always stays the same that can’t be seen in the graph. One can identify from the data that the slope is decreasing gradually because it decreases about 10-30 joules each time. However, it is not very clear in the table and it takes a while for people to identify the right variables from the pile of information. One thing how the table is better is the point that you can see the undefined slope’s data but in the graph you cannot.

In the graph we can see in estimate on where the work (joules) and slopes are and it is not as clear as in the table. However, the pattern is clearer in the graph than the table. The line of best fit shows this pattern. The line of best fit is a line that draws a rough linear relationship between the scattered points. One can see in the graph that the linear relationship between the points is decreasing every time the slope increases (increase of steepness). For an extra, I put the equation of the line that is also a helper in to finding the pattern to the data. The equation of the line is: y= -2.0809x+2.7987. From this equation -2.0809x is the slope and in math when the slope is a negative number the line is a declining line. Therefore from there we can also see the pattern of the data is declining.

Overall, from the table and the graph we can find out that in this experiment, that the relationship between slope and work (J) is that as the slope increases work decreases.

Evaluation and Conclusion

Hypothesis Validity:

In my hypothesis I stated:

If the angle of incline increases then the amount of work will stay the same because instead of the slope increasing, the effort distance will decrease. This cancels out any increases or decreases.

To sum my hypothesis up I wrote that there wouldn’t be any differences to the data, no increases or decreases. However, my data shows that there was a decrease and this is not the same as what I stated in my hypothesis. At first I wondered if my hypothesis was right or if my experiment was right. We had a discussion in class and I found out that my hypothesis was right. There fore there are some parts that I can improve in my experiment and they are listed bellow.

Reliability:

In my experiment, I think reliability is a point that it can improve on. Reliability is a point that talks about if the measurement that I did was correct and if they are proven right from several trials. When I measured the force with my spring scale, when the data was somewhat in the middle, I would round it up. For example in the 5th trial I rounded up the somewhat 4.5 Newtons to 5 Newtons. Because I did things like this often, they added up and made a difference to my experiment. Another reason my reliability could have been better is because I didn’t measure it multiple times. Because I was in a hurry, I only measured the force the effort distance etc. Once and didn’t think of measuring it more than one time to check if I was using the spring scales right. Again, this might have affected my experiment because I might have had some errors when I was calculating the force. However, a ting that I did good in reliability that I double-checked if the slope was right. For example, when one tries to calculate the slope they have to do rise over run. Even if a calculator does this, this might go wrong because I might have typed a wrong number. When I am dealing with numbers I checked again and again to see if I was right and all of the times they were right.

Improvements (Reliability):

Because Reliability is a point that I have to improve on, there are a lot of things that I have to list. First of all, I mentioned in the previous paragraph that I would round up the numbers and not do the precise number. I mentioned specifically about the force measuring and the spring scale. I said that the force was often near the middle. What I can do to fix this is a) find a spring scale that has more lines on it so I can know better how much force there are or b) Try this multiple times so that I can find out how many times it stays on which number so even though it is rounding up or down, it is more precise. I could also add more columns to write trial 1 3 times so there can be more precise data and an average.

Validity:

Even though the reliability of my experiment has a lot of areas where it can be improved, in the point of validity, I did a very thorough job of one of the hardest control variables that is the vertical height. I decided that the vertical height should always be 20cm. Before I started each experiment I measured the vertical height multiple times to mark the inclined plane. If the vertical height would be wrong, then the other data will fall apart because it will affect the slope since it is the rise as well. Another way that my Validity is good is because once I got confused with what unit to use that are my control variables. At first I used cm for everything then I realized that the answers were a little too high. I asked Ms. MacFarlane and she told me to measure in meters. That way I kept to my control variable so that it will not affect my independent or dependent variable.

Improvements (Validity):

Even though I mentioned some good things about validity, there are still a lot of things that can be improved in my experiment in the aspect of validity. For example, one of my control variables was the water bottle. However, to make the water bottle work with the spring scales, I had to put water in it. If I had done this experiment two separate times, the amount of water I put in the water bottle might have affected the results to the second set of tests which might hide the results. I think a good solution for this can be that I use an item that the weight cannot be easily changed.

Further inquiry:

There are a lot of things that I would do to change or expand this experiment. One thing that I would change in my experiment to make it more interesting is to add more math to this experiment. Instead of the independent variable being slope, we should make this so that it is actually the angle of incline. We can do this by using trigonometry. Another way that I would change this experiment is that I would do one that we can change the rise and not keep it the same all the time. A way I would expand this experiment is doing more trials. I have done 6 trials and I do not believe that to be a good amount to decide anything from. Doing more trials will give us a more precise and accurate data. A good way to expand this experiment is to combine the data of the whole class and make a graph and table out of that. Again, this would be a great opportunity for students to find out the precise data. One last way that I thought of to expand this experiment is to find out if items with wheels use less work than ones without wheels.

Comparing Graphs:

a) My Graph and Table

 Trials Rise (cm) Run (cm) Slope Effort Distance (m) Force (newtons) Work (joules) 1st 20 0 Undefined 0.2 6 1.20 2nd 20 72 0.28 0.73 3 2.19 3rd 20 62 0.32 0.64 3.5 2.24 4th 20 52 0.38 0.54 3.5 1.89 5th 20 45 0.44 0.47 4 1.88 6th 20 42 0.48 0.46 4 1.84

b) Sample Graph and Table

 Slope Work 0.14 0.61 0.21 0.64 0.27 0.59 0.34 0.53 0.41 0.57

In the Inclined Plane sample data one can see that the result is similar to how I stated in my hypothesis. I stated that there will be no increase or decrease and the work will be constant. One can see that work is always in the range of 0.5-0.6, which is in a very similar range. The results that I found in my graph is that the work decreases as the slope of the ramp increases. One can see this by the trend line and how the equation’s slope is a negative. One of the main reasons the height of where the dots are are different is because my data is a raise 0f 0.2m whilst the sample graph is 0.1.

I think the two data’s are different because my data had a lot of disruptions in the middle. For example, as mentioned before, when I was experimenting and recording the results, I rounded a lot of numbers up so that it would be easier for me to record and calculate. However, the results found out in the sample graph match my hypothesis and therefore I can state that my hypothesis is right.

3.  Questions

3a.  On the basis of the results of these inquiries, how would you define a machine?

I would define a machine as something that makes work easier for humans because as I realised when I was experimenting I think that simple machines were not just made out of nowhere. It was found or created so that humans could interact with them a benefit from them.

3b.  In your view, is an inclined plane a machine?

In my view I think that an inclined plane is not a machine firstly because it can be found in the environment and second because it doesn’t make work easier for humans. It can be found in the environment in forms of different things such as mountains and hills. I found out that it doesn’t make work easier for humans and the work amount stays the same because as the slope increases the effort distance decreases and vise versa so they each get cancelled out.

3c.  Why are ramps for people with physical disabilities long and gently sloping, rather than short and steep?

If the Ramps were too steep the speed of the wheel chair going down will increase which will create a higher possibility of their being an injury.

4.  BIBLIOGRAPHY

Energy, Machines, and Motion. Burlington, NC: Carolina Biological Supply, 2006. Print.

3) Process Journal

October 22 2013 Day D

 Work Completed Today Design Technology:Today I worked on step 1 of my plan, which is creating a scale model. When I was creating the scale model I already had the measurements done so I made another scale model with the plans that I had for it so on the side of the paper it says PLAN 1) Find perfect fit 2) Find one with holes 3) Stick strips of plastic to make shape. These were my 3 plans to do. They were basically my plan A, B, and C. People consulted The people consulted today were my mom because I asked her when I should get the materials. She said that she would find stores where they would sell materials and that she would take me with her to look at them. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product I did not use any tools to build my product so I am going to Post a picture of my “scale model because this is what I did in class: Challenges Difficulties Faced I have always feared the construction stage because my product is very complex so I was not sure that I could succeed in building it. The one difficulty, which I am very worried about, is the materials. I have to find a perfect cylinder that fits the mechanism that is very hard to find. I cannot post a picture of this difficulty because there is nothing to take a picture of. Evaluation of progress I am falling behind even on the first day of my construction phase. I was looking forward to this but my lack of materials is Pulling me down. I think I should work harder when I get my materials so I will not fall behind or rather so I can catch up with my peers.

October 23rd 2013 Day E

 Work Completed Today Design Technology:Since I didn’t get my materials yet, I have been working on developing my website. I thought that my menu looked messy so I decided to add more subcategories and make it look neater and more presentable. This took a long time because wordpress’s server is week these days.This is a picture of the process: People consulted I have consulted my client today about how they want my website to be. My client stated that my website was very catchy and she liked it very much. She like the way that I organized my menus. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product I did not start building my product so the only tool that I used to construct the construction phase was Microsoft word and my computer. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some difficulties faced were that the website was very slow and it took a long time to load the dashboard. It was very frustrating and I tried to do my best but it took a whole period to do this.Picture of my dashboard: Evaluation of progress I have noticed that my peers have started working on their building already and I haven’t started. Like mentioned in the previous entry I must catch up and by my materials in the weekend or sometime in the near future.

October 25th 2013 Day G

 Work Completed Today Design Technology: Since I didn’t get my Materials yet, I worked on the humanities part of the project. In science because we learned about inclined planes I knew about that machine but I didn’t know how the others worked as well. That is why I thought that I have to research more first.Picture of the progress: People consulted The people I have consulted is my mother. Because I haven’t got my materials yet, I asked her when I could get it, she said that she looked around the shops but it wasn’t easy to find a fitting one and she thought that we had to make a matching one out of some plastic, and I agreed. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product I didn’t have my materials so I worked on some science, so the tools and materials that I used to create the product are my mac book and Microsoft Word. Challenges Difficulties Faced As mentioned before, some challenges or difficulties faced were that I didn’t know about the other machines and I only knew about the inclined plane. But I overcame that difficulty by researching about it and getting to build my knowledge. I don’t have any picture for this difficulty because it was all in my head. Evaluation of progress I think that in the Design Technology way I am falling behind because I haven’t even built my product yet and the others are making their shapes already. But in the document way, I don’t think I am falling behind.

October 31st 2013 Day B

 Work Completed Today Design Technology:I have bought my materials but since it is a short day, I decided to not bring my materials and work on further developing my document. I worked on humanities this time because humanities had a lot of work on it. This time I worked on the historical Investigation.Picture of progress: People consulted Some people consulted was my client. I was worried that my client was mad because I hadn’t started building my product. She said don’t worry because I still have enough time and since my product was very simple. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product The tools that I used for this part of the project was Microsoft word. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some challenges or a difficulty faced was that I tried to site a PowerPoint that I had used before and I didn’t know how to do it. I overcame this difficulty by finding out online how to site a PowerPoint. There are no exact pictures for this difficulty. Evaluation of progress As mentioned in the previous process journal I am doing well in the document but I must start building next period so that I can catch up with the others.

November 4th 2013 Day D

 Work Completed Today Since today was a double period, I worked on building my project. The materials that I had were these:Since I thought my plan didn’t make sense, I changed the orders so it could be easier for me. Today all I did was cut the high-density foam board in to a circle drill holes in them and drill a hole in the plastic cylinder. People consulted Some people consulted were my peers next to me. I asked them constantly if my high-density foam board looked like a circle and they replied. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product Some tools that I used to create this product are the craft knife. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some challenges faced were that Mr. Thorburn said that he didn’t have a tool that could cut a hole in to my plastic cylinder. He said he would drill holes on either side and try to make it. I solved this problem by it working and filing the edges to make it smooth. Evaluation of progress Overall, I think I am doing find and I am trying my best to catch up. But I am still not at the place that I want to be so I am working hard.

November 7th 2013 Day G

 Work Completed Today Today, I worked on cutting the dowels and putting the gears on and sticking the gear on to the dowel using a glue gun. I also made the 2nd plastic cylinder.Picture of progress: People consulted Some people consulted was my mother. I took my half finished product home and she said that it was good but she said to file the hole of the outside cylinder more. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product I have used the glue gun but it was very hot and dangerous that I didn’t take any photos. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some difficulties faced were that I was afraid that the gears will not go together but because I measured correctly and precisely, it worked fairly well. Evaluation of progress I am doing well and I have caught up with the other students and with the document as well. The next thing I think I have to do is check if this product works.

November 12th 2013 Day B

 Work Completed Today Today, I worked on developing the side bar for my website. When I looked at my side bar I realized that it was very drab and it wasn’t very special so I decided to customize it.Side bar Customized: People consulted Some people consulted were my client. I gave her the semi-finished product and asked her if it was fine. She said that it was good but she said that same thing as my mother. She said that I should file the handle hole. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product The tools that I used for this was safari because I didn’t build today. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some difficulties faced was that I had to enter the code in the text bar so it will work when looking at the actual website. It was a difficulty because I had never done it. But I have solved it by looking up on the internet to find out how to do it. Evaluation of progress I am doing very well and I certainly like the way that my product is turning out because all I need to do is add the water proof material and then I am done.

November 14th 2013 Day D

 Work Completed Today Humanities: In Humanities I have finished the mechanisms study and know I am moving on to the historical investigation that I have slightly started.Design Technology:I have completed developing my website in class. Because the teachers thought that the weever II theme was a good idea I changed my website to that theme and then I realized that this was total chaos.  It was unorganized and even if I tried hard to make it better it wouldn’t so I undoed everying. Pictures of progress: People consulted Some people consulted were my client because I asked her if she liked the weaver theme and I showed her the captured scene. She said she liked the old one better but she thought that I could improve more on the weever theme. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product The tools that I used to create the website was safari. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some difficulties faced was that when I changed it in to the weever theme, the static page would appear with the sidebar, which was ugly to see. I solved this problem by changing it back to the 2011 theme.The pictures are above. Evaluation of progress I am doing very well, except I need to end my product and finish it off. I don’t think I am behind anyone know that I’ve almost finished building.

November 15th 2013 Day E

 Work Completed Today Humanities:I am almost finished with the historical investigation because inclined planes have a lot of information to it online. I am also using easybib to correctly site my resources.Design Technology: The work that I have completed today is I have worked on Humanities because I decided that I have almost finished DT and it was all right for me to start doing research to finish Humanities. People consulted Some people consulted were my client. I asked her if my product material for the swimming cap was okay. She said it was fine because it was waterproof. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product Because I didn’t build today, the tools that I used to create the document was Microsoft word. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some difficulties faced was that at home, I couldn’t find any swimming cap but I was sure that it was at home. I solved this problem by getting my family to help me find it. I couldn’t take pictures of this event but I have the picture of the cap obove. Evaluation of progress I am doing well since the deadline is coming up. I have finished most of my information and I am working on the evaluate on science the only thing I need to do for DT is cut a hole in the swimming cap and file the cup.

November 19th 2013 Day G

 Work Completed Today Humanities:Today at humanities I got feedback for my Development. It was helpful for my construction phase because I could see what I could improve on and develop or change.Design Technology: I had a lot of work completed today. Today I worked on filing the hole in the inside of my big cup because it is one of the last stages in to finishing my product. At home I cut a hole in to my swimming cap to finish the project up. People consulted One person consulted was Mr. Johnson as I mentioned about the development stage. I have gotten a lot out of that talk and I know that I will take the feedback in to consideration. Photos showing use of tools used to create the product The tools I have used to create the product was the file as you can see in the picture. Challenges Difficulties Faced Some challenges faced were that when I was cutting the whole inside the swimming cap I didn’t know the exact size to make it. So I got a sample umbrella and drew the circle. I don’t have any pictures of this event. Evaluation of progress I have finished almost everything from building to the document. All I have left is to finish some of my science and my humanities.

b) Final Product

i)bird eye view

ii) Front view

Evidence of Testing

Aesthetic appearance (Shape, color, texture): I will conduct a survey to people ask my client after I make my product to make sure that my final drawing matches with my product. (I decided to ask my client because it was the client who decides finally).

When I asked my client, my client stated that the colors and the materials were very identical and she approved of it.

IMPROVEMENT- Quality Control: I will check if the product works properly. This will decided when the Quality Control is conducted.

I experimented with my umbrella to see if it works. I found out that it works well since I was worried that it couldn’t turn the umbrella because it might have been too heavy. The reason it worked was because I poked the hole in the swimming cap but it didn’t work so I made the hole bigger.

Health and safety: I will check my self if it has any dangerous parts and fix any problems.

I checked for dangerous parts and I found out the hole at the top was kind of rough so I filed it extra so that it wasn’t dangerous

Weight: I will be putting my product on a weight to see if it is less than 10 kg.

I have tested this and put this on a weight and measured to see if it was less than 10kg. I found out that it wasn’t even 1 kg and it was about 0.9 kg.

Product Construction Works cited

Works Cited

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BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/archimedes.shtml>.

BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/content/articles/2007/02/16/ketley_inclined_plane_video_feature.shtml>.

“Canal Inclined Plane.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canal_inclined_plane>.

“Dirtmeister: Simple Machines — Wedge.” Dirtmeister: Simple Machines — Wedge. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://teacher.scholastic.com/dirtrep/simple/wedge.htm>.

Easton, James. Conjectures on the Mysterious Monument of Ancient Art, Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain. Salisbury, England: Printed and Sold by J. Easton, 1821. Print.

“Egypt: Overview of Egypt Pyramid Construction.” Egypt: Overview of Egypt Pyramid Construction. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.touregypt.net/construction/>.

“English Definition of “canal”” Canal Noun. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/canal?q=canal>.

“English Definition of “landslide”” Landslide Noun (FALLING EARTH). N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/landslide_1?q=landslide>.

“Evacuation Slide.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evacuation_slide>.

“Great Pyramid of Giza.” – New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza>.

“Heron of Alexandria.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/263417/Heron-of-Alexandria>.

“Inclined Plane.” – New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/inclined_plane>.

“Inclined Plane.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclined_plane>.

“”inQuiry Almanack” – Spotlighting… – March, 1997.” “inQuiry Almanack” – Spotlighting… – March, 1997. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.fi.edu/qa97/spotlight3/>.

“Ketley Canal.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Oct. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketley_Canal>.

“Levers Are Simple Machines.” Lever Is a Simple Machine by Ron Kurtus. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.school-for-champions.com/machines/levers.htm>.

N.d. Photograph. Basic Mechanics. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <https://www.clear.rice.edu/elec201/Book/images/pulley.gif>.

N.d. Photograph. Education.com. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://01.edu-cdn.com/files/89501_89600/89547/file_89547.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. English Heritage. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/content/properties/stonehenge/287293/stonehenge-header-1.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. The Famous People. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://cdn1.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/images/archimedes.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Free Patents Online. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6769647-0-large.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Hyper Physics. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mechanics/imgmech/screw.gif>.

N.d. Photograph. KMODDL. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://kmoddl.library.cornell.edu/stillImages/Clark/small/003.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Math Open Reference. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.mathopenref.com/images/hero/heronbust.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Museum of Science+industry Chicago. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.msichicago.org/fileadmin/Activities/Howtos/Build_a_Lever/lever_drawing.gif>.

N.d. Photograph. New World Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://static.newworldencyclopedia.org/6/62/Straight_on_ramps1a.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. New World Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://static.newworldencyclopedia.org/c/cc/Other_ramps1b.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Photographers Resource. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.photographers-resource.co.uk/images/A_heritage/canals/Foxton/Foxton_inclined_plane_construction.png>.

N.d. Photograph. USGS. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. <http://landslides.usgs.gov/research/other/images/Image65.jpg>.

N.d. Photograph. Wikimedia. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b5/Inclined_plane_terminology.svg/1024px-Inclined_plane_terminology.svg.png>.

“Research Article: Inclined Plane.” BookRags. BookRags, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.bookrags.com/research/inclined-plane-woi/>.

“Stonehenge.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Nov. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stonehenge>.

“Uganda Abandons Landslide Rescue Bid for Buried.” BBC News. BBC, 26 June 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-18592927>.

Washington Homes on Edge After Massive Landslide. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcouYJMfHNo>.

“The Wheel and Axle – Maillardet’s Automaton–Franklin Institute Science Museum.” The Wheel and Axle – Maillardet’s Automaton–Franklin Institute Science Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.fi.edu/pieces/knox/automaton/wheel.htm>.

Work and Simple Machines PPT Video. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7xS2Ali1t8>.

“Work and Simple Machines.” Science Education at Jefferson Lab. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://education.jlab.org/jsat/powerpoint/work_and_simple_machines.ppt>.

“Work and Six Simple Machines.” Work and Six Simple Machines. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://bookbuilder.cast.org/view_print.php?book=21173>.

“Worldwide Overview of Large Landslides of the 20th and 21st Centuries.” Worldwide Overview of Large Landslides of the 20th and 21st Centuries. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://landslides.usgs.gov/learning/majorls.php>.

Romeo and Juliet Act III discussion reflection

1. Video of Discussion

This video is a video that we filmed in the Romeo and Juliet Act III discussion. You can see that we are doing a good job meeting all of the topics. But there are also times when we are trying to talk over each other which we have to fix. Overall, this is a very good discussion. We have learnt a lot from this discussion.

2. Discussion Web

This is the discussion web that Mr. Johnson drew while we were in the discussion. We can see if this web is good if it is spread out. We can see that overall the web is smooth. But there are some dominant speakers. Personally, I realised that I spoke with the same people even though I spoke the right amount. I learned a lot and I will fix my mistakes.

These are the Active readings and the notes that I took on 3 different acts of Romeo and Juliet. They are from act 1-3.

4. Reflection

This was the second class discussion that we had but we can say that this was the first correct one because the first was a trial. Our team overall, did a good job but I noticed that I, as an individual, and us, as a team, could improve on things.

Firstly, I mentioned that we did a good job in the discussion. Some were that we reached to different topics in the books rather than staying in one part of the book and dragging on and on about the obvious. When we thought that we thought enough on one topic one person would say, “I think we’ve talked too much on this topic and we should discuss another topic.”. Another good job we did was that we stated specific quotes from the book. We could have just said “Juliet said something like this…”, we expanded on this and said, “Juliet said…” which was smart of us.

Secondly, even though we did a good job, there certainly some things that we can improve on. One of the things are better expressed using a simile. I thought we were like tigers trying to pounce on meat. In other words we were jumping over each other’s ideas and stating our own not listening to other’s ideas. So I felt as if the discussion was not as connected as it could have been. If we improved this point, I think we could have done a good job.

The way we prepared for this discussion was a little different because we didn’t read the book with Mr. Johnson and we read it on our own and filled out our active reading sheets. I think this was a good idea because we are not limited to how the teachers think and we can explore in to the book. I was surprised to find that out of the things that I have written in my active reading about three fourths of the class has written as well. In the future I wish we could do a formal debate which will be easier to follow, or we can raise hands to talk which is what we did last year. This will make the discussion more organised as well.

Overall, we received a 6 out of 10. I think we could have done better because I knew that every single one of us studied hard for this discussion. But we’ve learned because of this discussion and I hope everyone else did as well.